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Fundamentals of Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors - Peter Saulson

Fundamentals of Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors

Hardcover

Published: 1994
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Gravitational waves were predicted by Einstein many years ago but have not yet been seen. This book is about the technology of the new generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors now being built, such as the US LIGO (Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory) project. The book aims to make plain how these detectors function, and why it is reasonable to think that gravitational waves may be successfully detected. After an introduction to the physical and astronomical aspects of gravitational waves, the book concentrates on explaining the basic principles behind the detectors and discusses the strategies for utilizing them. All the required background in relativity, astronomy, optics and experimental physics techniques is developed within the text and anyone with an undergraduate knowledge of physics will be able to follow the arguments presented. The book should be of use not just to physicists and astronomers who wish to acquaint themselves with the subject, but also for use on courses in experimental physics.

Preface
The Search for Gravitational Wavesp. 1
The Importance of the Searchp. 1
A Bit of Historyp. 2
The Practice of Gravitational Wave Detectionp. 4
A Guide for the Readerp. 6
The Nature of Gravitational Wavesp. 9
Waves in General Relativityp. 9
The Michelson-Morley Experimentp. 12
A Schematic Detector of Gravitational Wavesp. 18
Description of Gravitational Waves in Terms of Forcep. 25
Sources of Gravitational Wavesp. 29
Physics of Gravitational Wave Generationp. 29
In the Footsteps of Heinrich Hertz?p. 33
Observation of Gravitational Wave Emissionp. 36
Astronomical Sources of Gravitational Wavesp. 38
Linear Systems, Signals and Noisep. 49
Characterizing a Time Seriesp. 49
Linear Systemsp. 55
The Signal-to-Noise Ratiop. 62
Optical Readout Noisep. 71
Photon Shot Noisep. 71
Radiation Pressure Noisep. 75
Shot Noise in Classical and Quantum Mechanicsp. 80
The Remarkable Precision of Interferometryp. 83
Folded Interferometer Armsp. 85
Herriott Delay Linep. 86
Beam Diameter and Mirror Diameterp. 88
Fabry-Perot Cavitiesp. 90
A Long Fabry-Perot Cavityp. 97
Hermite-Gaussian Beamsp. 97
Scattered Light in Interferometersp. 99
Comparison of Fabry-Perot Cavities with Delay Linesp. 101
Optical Readout Noise in Folded Interferometersp. 101
Transfer Function of a Folded Interferometerp. 102
To Fold, or Not to Fold?p. 105
Thermal Noisep. 107
Brownian Motionp. 107
Brownian Motion of a Macroscopic Mass Suspended in a Dilute Gasp. 108
The Fluctuation-Dissipation Theoremp. 110
Remarks on the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theoremp. 112
The Quality Factor, Qp. 113
Thermal Noise in a Gas-Damped Pendulump. 114
Dissipation from Internal Friction in Materialsp. 116
Special Features of the Pendulump. 121
Thermal Noise of the Pendulum's Internal Modesp. 124
Seismic Noise and Vibration Isolationp. 127
Ambient Seismic Spectrump. 127
Seismometersp. 129
Vibration Isolatorsp. 130
Myths About Vibration Isolationp. 132
Isolation in an Interferometerp. 133
Stacks and Multiple Pendulumsp. 136
Q: High or Low?p. 139
A Gravitational "Short Circuit" Around Vibration Isolatorsp. 141
Beyond Passive Isolationp. 142
Design Features of Large Interferometersp. 145
How Small Can We Make a Gravitational Wave Interferometer?p. 145
Noise from Residual Gasp. 147
The Space-Borne Alternativep. 151
Null Instrumentsp. 153
Some virtues of nullityp. 154
The Advantages of Choppingp. 162
The Necessity to Operate a Gravitational Wave Interferometer as an Active Null Instrumentp. 164
Feedback control systemsp. 169
The Loop Transfer Functionp. 171
The Closed Loop Transfer Functionp. 172
Designing the Loop Transfer Functionp. 174
Instabilityp. 175
The Compensation Filterp. 179
Active Damping: A Servo Design Examplep. 181
Feedback to Reduce Seismic Noise over a Broad Bandp. 188
An Interferometer as an Active Null Instrumentp. 191
Fringe-Lock in a Non-Resonant Interferometerp. 191
Shot Noise in a Modulated Interferometerp. 198
Rejection of Laser Output Power Noisep. 199
Locking the Fringep. 199
Fringe Lock for a Fabry-Perot Cavityp. 203
A Simple Interferometer with Fabry-Perot Armsp. 206
Beyond the Basic Interferometerp. 208
Resonant Mass Gravitational Wave Detectorsp. 215
Does Form Follow Function?p. 215
The Idea of Resonant Mass Detectorsp. 216
A Bar's Impulse Response and Transfer Functionp. 217
Resonant Transducersp. 222
Thermal Noise in a Barp. 224
Bandwidth of Resonant Mass Detectorsp. 228
A Real Barp. 231
Quantum Mechanical Sensitivity "Limit"p. 232
Beyond the Quantum "Limit"?p. 235
Detecting Gravitational Wave Signalsp. 237
The Signal Detection Problemp. 237
Probability Distribution of Time Seriesp. 238
Coincidence Detectionp. 244
Optimum Orientationp. 245
Local Coincidencesp. 246
Searching for Periodic Gravitational Wavesp. 247
Searching for a Stochastic Backgroundp. 252
Gravitational Wave Astronomyp. 255
Gravitational Wave Astronomyp. 255
Gravitational Wave Source Positionsp. 255
Interpretation of Gravitational Waveformsp. 264
Previous Gravitational Wave Searchesp. 268
Prospectsp. 277
A Prototype Interferometerp. 277
LIGOp. 279
Proposed Features of 4 km Interferometersp. 279
Referencesp. 283
Indexp. 295
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9789810218201
ISBN-10: 9810218206
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 316
Published: 1994
Country of Publication: SG
Dimensions (cm): 22.91 x 15.19  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.59