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Fundamental Aspects of Silicon Oxidation : Springer Series in Materials Science - Yves Jean Chabal

Fundamental Aspects of Silicon Oxidation

Springer Series in Materials Science

By: Yves Jean Chabal (Editor)

Hardcover Published: June 2001
ISBN: 9783540416821
Number Of Pages: 262

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This book brings forth fundamental aspects of silicon oxidation that are key to understanding the nature of ultra-thin oxides used in microelectronics. From the wet chemical pre-cleans prior to oxidation to oxygen diffusion in oxides, the chemical, structural and kinetic elements of oxidation are presented in a tutorial fashion at both an experimental and theoretical level. Experimental results are based on powerful techniques such as photon/electron spectroscopy, ion scattering and electron/tunneling microscopy. The theories, based on first principles, focus on atomic scale processes related to silicon oxidation. In contrast to previous books dealing with the structural and electronic properties of silicon oxide, this book is solely devoted to the formation and evolution of silicon oxide, including its nitridation.

From the reviews: "Silicon remains the dominant microelectronic material ! . One of the reasons for this is the 'extraordinary perfection' of its interface with its thermally grown oxide. ! The book provides a valuable snapshot as at early 2000 of the range of diverse approaches, both theoretical and experimental, being applied ! by some of the leading practitioners in this field. It would be of interest to scientists and engineers with a specialist's interest in this or related interfaces." (M. A. Green, The Physicist, Vol. 38 (6), 2001)

Introductionp. 1
The Silicon MOSFETp. 1
Surface States and the Early Discoveriesp. 3
New Technologiesp. 4
Silicon Dioxide Growthp. 4
Microstructure of the Interfacep. 5
Referencesp. 8
Morphological Aspects of Silicon Oxidation in Aqueous Solutionsp. 13
Introductionp. 13
Reaction Anisotropy and the Control of Atomic-Scale Morphologyp. 14
Extreme Anisotropy: NH4F Etching of Si(111)p. 15
Controlling Anisotropy: The Curious Effects of Isopropanolp. 18
Correlated Reactions and the Development ofMesoscale Morphologiesp. 21
Correlated Etching: The Surprising Role of Etch Pitsp. 21
Kinetic Structures and the Development of Etch Hillocksp. 24
Using Micromachined Patterns to Study Surface Chemistryp. 27
Conclusions and Outlookp. 32
Referencesp. 33
Structural Evolution of the Silicon/Oxide Interface During Passive and Active Oxidationp. 35
Introductionp. 35
Passive and Active Oxidation in situ in the TEMp. 36
Passive Oxidation as a Layer-by-Layer Processp. 40
What Can in situ Experiments Reveal About the Reaction Mechanism?p. 42
Stress, Ordering and Stoichiometry at the Interfacep. 48
Active Oxidation as a Step-Flow Processp. 49
Kinetic Measurementsof Step Nucleation and Flowp. 50
Control of Surface Morphology During Device Processingp. 54
Electron Beam Effects During in situ Electron Microscopyp. 55
Conclusionsp. 56
Referencesp. 57
Oxidation of H-Terminated Siliconp. 61
Introductionp. 61
Experimental and Analytical Detailsp. 63
Initial Stage of Oxidation ofH-Terminated Si Surfacesp. 65
Initial Stage of Oxidation of the H-Si(111)-1×1 Surfacep. 65
Initial Stage of Oxidation of the H-Si(100)-2×1 Surfacep. 69
Layer-by-Layer Oxidation Reaction at the Interfacep. 72
Layer-by-Layer Oxidation Reaction at the SiO2/Si(111) Interfacep. 72
Lateral Size of Atomically Flat Interfacep. 75
Effect of Initial Surface Morphology on the SiO2/Si(100) Interface Structuresp. 76
Oxidation-Induced Roughnessof Oxide Surfacesp. 78
Oxidation-Induced Surface Roughness on Si(111)p. 78
Oxidation-Induced Surface Roughness on Si(100)p. 79
Valence Band Discontinuities at and near the SiO2/Si Interfacep. 85
Summary and Future Directionsp. 85
Referencesp. 87
Layer-by-Layer Oxidation of Si(001) Surfacesp. 89
Introductionp. 89
Experimental Detailsp. 90
SREM Observation of the Initial Oxidation of Si(001)-2 × 1 Surfacesp. 92
Mechanismof Layer-by-Layer Oxidationp. 95
Kineticsof Initial Layer-by-Layer Oxidationp. 98
Furnace Oxidation at High Temperaturep. 101
Summaryp. 104
Referencesp. 104
Atomic Dynamics During Silicon Oxidationp. 107
Introductionp. 107
Theoretical Approachp. 110
Atomic Processes During Oxidationp. 112
Model Structure of Si(001)-SiO2 Interfacep. 116
Model of Oxidationp. 119
Discussionand Conclusionp. 121
Referencesp. 123
First-Principles Quantum Chemical Investigations of Silicon Oxidationp. 127
Introductionp. 127
Theoretical Approachp. 128
Water-Induced Oxidation of Si(100)-(2 × 1)p. 130
Initial Adsorption of Water on Si(100)-(2 × 1)p. 131
Thermodynamicsof Oxygen Insertionand Aggregationp. 132
Vibrational Spectra at 600 K - Oxygen Migrationp. 134
Higher Temperature Annealing - Oxygen Agglomerationp. 136
Continuous Oxide Formationp. 139
Conclusionsp. 139
Referencesp. 140
Vibrational Studies of Ultra-Thin Oxides and Initial Silicon Oxidationp. 143
Introductionp. 143
Scientific Challengesp. 144
Spectroscopic Considerationsp. 145
Theoretical Considerationsp. 146
Nature of Ultra-Thin Silicon Oxides and Si/SiO2 Interfacep. 147
Water Oxidation of Si(100)-(2 × 1)p. 151
Initial Oxygen Insertion and Agglomerationp. 151
Continuous Oxide Formationp. 155
Conclusionsp. 157
Referencesp. 158
Ion Beam Studies of Silicon Oxidation and Oxynitridationp. 161
Introductionp. 161
Experimental Techniquesp. 161
Ion Scattering Techniquesp. 161
Nuclear Reaction Techniquesp. 167
Isotope Tracing Techniquesp. 171
Silicon Oxidationp. 172
Silicon Oxynitridationp. 179
Hydrogen in Ultrathin SiO2 Filmsp. 183
Referencesp. 188
Local and Global Bonding at the Si-SiO2 Interfacep. 193
Introductionp. 193
The Oxidation Process and Local Bonding Arrangementsp. 196
Global Bonding at the Interfacep. 200
Z-Contrast Microscopyp. 205
Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopyp. 209
Referencesp. 218
Evolution of the Interfacial Electronic Structure During Thermal Oxidationp. 219
Introductionp. 219
Image Formation in STEMp. 221
Measuring Interface Roughnessand Oxide Thicknessp. 223
Mapping Interface States with EELSp. 227
Comparing Electronic Structure Calculations and EELSp. 234
Evolution of the Local Electronic Structurep. 238
Conclusionsp. 243
Referencesp. 244
Structure and Energetics of the Interface Between Si and Amorphous SiO2p. 247
Introductionp. 247
Methodp. 247
Calculation and Resultsp. 249
Discussionp. 253
Conclusionp. 254
Referencesp. 255
Indexp. 257
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540416821
ISBN-10: 354041682X
Series: Springer Series in Materials Science
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 262
Published: June 2001
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.27
Weight (kg): 0.64