Acts 1-2 shows the apostles' change of status from followers to leaders. This book uses the model of a modern day ritual in examining the stages of this transformation. Estrada challenges the common view that Acts 1:12-14 is the preparation for the coming of the Spirit in Acts 2, and that the sole purpose of Acts 1:15-26 is to set the number of the apostles at twelve - in line with Jesus' prophecy in Luke 22:30. Instead, Estrada reads Acts 1:12-14 and 1:15-26 as primarily propagandistic in nature. He argues that these pericopes promote the leadership integrity of the apostles by attempting to win the support of the clientele of the women disciples and Jesus' family and then, through Judas' excommunication, extirpation, and replacement, to win that of the 20 disciples. This is volume 255 in the Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement series.