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Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications : 3rd edition, 2005  - Edward Anderson

Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications

3rd edition, 2005


Published: 24th June 2005
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With its combination of practicality, readability, and rigor that is characteristic of any truly authoritative reference and text, Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications quickly established itself as the most comprehensive guide to fracture mechanics available. It has been adopted by more than 100 universities and embraced by thousands of professional engineers worldwide. Now in its third edition, the book continues to raise the bar in both scope and coverage. It encompasses theory and applications, linear and nonlinear fracture mechanics, solid mechanics, and materials science with a unified, balanced, and in-depth approach.
Reflecting the many advances made in the decade since the previous edition came about, this indispensable Third Edition now includes:
A new chapter on environmental cracking
Expanded coverage of weight functions
New material on toughness test methods
New problems at the end of the book
New material on the failure assessment diagram (FAD) method
Expanded and updated coverage of crack closure and variable-amplitude fatigue
Updated solutions manual
In addition to these enhancements, Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, Third Edition also includes detailed mathematical derivations in appendices at the end of applicable chapters; recent developments in laboratory testing, application to structures, and computational methods; coverage of micromechanisms of fracture; and more than 400 illustrations. This reference continues to be a necessity on the desk of anyone involved with fracture mechanics.

Introductionp. 1
History and Overviewp. 3
Why Structures Failp. 3
Historical Perspectivep. 6
Early Fracture Researchp. 8
The Liberty Shipsp. 9
Post-War Fracture Mechanics Researchp. 10
Fracture Mechanics from 1960 to 1980p. 10
Fracture Mechanics from 1980 to the Presentp. 12
The Fracture Mechanics Approach to Designp. 12
The Energy Criterionp. 12
The Stress-Intensity Approachp. 14
Time-Dependent Crack Growth and Damage Tolerancep. 15
Effect of Material Properties on Fracturep. 16
A Brief Review of Dimensional Analysisp. 18
The Buckingham II-Theoremp. 18
Dimensional Analysis in Fracture Mechanicsp. 19
Referencesp. 21
Fundamental Conceptsp. 23
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanicsp. 25
An Atomic View of Fracturep. 25
Stress Concentration Effect of Flawsp. 27
The Griffith Energy Balancep. 29
Comparison with the Critical Stress Criterionp. 31
Modified Griffith Equationp. 32
The Energy Release Ratep. 34
Instability and the R Curvep. 38
Reasons for the R Curve Shapep. 39
Load Control vs. Displacement Controlp. 40
Structures with Finite Compliancep. 41
Stress Analysis of Cracksp. 42
The Stress Intensity Factorp. 43
Relationship between K and Global Behaviorp. 45
Effect of Finite Sizep. 48
Principle of Superpositionp. 54
Weight Functionsp. 56
Relationship between K and Gp. 58
Crack-Tip Plasticityp. 61
The Irwin Approachp. 61
The Strip-Yield Modelp. 64
Comparison of Plastic Zone Correctionsp. 66
Plastic Zone Shapep. 66
K-Controlled Fracturep. 69
Plane Strain Fracture: Fact vs. Fictionp. 72
Crack-Tip Triaxialityp. 73
Effect of Thickness on Apparent Fracture Toughnessp. 75
Plastic Zone Effectsp. 78
Implications for Cracks in Structuresp. 79
Mixed-Mode Fracturep. 80
Propagation of an Angled Crackp. 81
Equivalent Mode I Crackp. 83
Biaxial Loadingp. 84
Interaction of Multiple Cracksp. 86
Coplanar Cracksp. 86
Parallel Cracksp. 86
Mathematical Foundations of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanicsp. 88
Plane Elasticityp. 88
Cartesian Coordinatesp. 89
Polar Coordinatesp. 90
Crack Growth Instability Analysisp. 91
Crack-Tip Stress Analysisp. 92
Generalized In-Plane Loadingp. 92
The Westergaard Stress Functionp. 95
Elliptical Integral of the Second Kindp. 100
Referencesp. 101
Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanicsp. 103
Crack-Tip-Opening Displacementp. 103
The J Contour Integralp. 107
Nonlinear Energy Release Ratep. 108
J as a Path-Independent Line Integralp. 110
J as a Stress Intensity Parameterp. 111
The Large Strain Zonep. 113
Laboratory Measurement of Jp. 114
Relationships Between J and CTODp. 120
Crack-Growth Resistance Curvesp. 123
Stable and Unstable Crack Growthp. 124
Computing J for a Growing Crackp. 126
J-Controlled Fracturep. 128
Stationary Cracksp. 128
J-Controlled Crack Growthp. 131
Crack-Tip Constraint Under Large-Scale Yieldingp. 133
The Elastic T Stressp. 137
J-Q Theoryp. 140
The J-Q Toughness Locusp. 142
Effect of Failure Mechanism on the J-Q Locusp. 144
Scaling Model for Cleavage Fracturep. 145
Failure Criterionp. 145
Three-Dimensional Effectsp. 147
Application of the Modelp. 148
Limitations of Two-Parameter Fracture Mechanicsp. 149
Mathematical Foundations of Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanicsp. 153
Determining CTOD from the Strip-Yield Modelp. 153
The J Contour Integralp. 156
J as a Nonlinear Elastic Energy Release Ratep. 158
The HRR Singularityp. 159
Analysis of Stable Crack Growth in Small-Scale Yieldingp. 162
The Rice-Drugan-Sham Analysisp. 162
Steady State Crack Growthp. 166
Notes on the Applicability of Deformation Plasticity to Crack Problemsp. 168
Referencesp. 171
Dynamic and Time-Dependent Fracturep. 173
Dynamic Fracture and Crack Arrestp. 173
Rapid Loading of a Stationary Crackp. 174
Rapid Crack Propagation and Arrestp. 178
Crack Speedp. 180
Elastodynamic Crack-Tip Parametersp. 182
Dynamic Toughnessp. 184
Crack Arrestp. 186
Dynamic Contour Integralsp. 188
Creep Crack Growthp. 189
The C* Integralp. 191
Short-Time vs. Long-Time Behaviorp. 193
The C[subscript t] Parameterp. 195
Primary Creepp. 196
Viscoelastic Fracture Mechanicsp. 196
Linear Viscoelasticityp. 197
The Viscoelastic J Integralp. 200
Constitutive Equationsp. 200
Correspondence Principlep. 200
Generalized J Integralp. 201
Crack Initiation and Growthp. 202
Transition from Linear to Nonlinear Behaviorp. 204
Dynamic Fracture Analysisp. 206
Elastodynamic Crack Tip Fieldsp. 206
Derivation of the Generalized Energy Release Ratep. 209
Referencesp. 213
Material Behaviorp. 217
Fracture Mechanisms in Metalsp. 219
Ductile Fracturep. 219
Void Nucleationp. 219
Void Growth and Coalescencep. 222
Ductile Crack Growthp. 231
Cleavagep. 234
Fractographyp. 234
Mechanisms of Cleavage Initiationp. 235
Mathematical Models of Cleavage Fracture Toughnessp. 238
The Ductile-Brittle Transitionp. 247
Intergranular Fracturep. 249
Statistical Modeling of Cleavage Fracturep. 250
Weakest Link Fracturep. 250
Incorporating a Conditional Probability of Propagationp. 252
Referencesp. 254
Fracture Mechanisms in Nonmetalsp. 257
Engineering Plasticsp. 257
Structure and Properties of Polymersp. 258
Molecular Weightp. 258
Molecular Structurep. 259
Crystalline and Amorphous Polymersp. 259
Viscoelastic Behaviorp. 260
Mechanical Analogsp. 263
Yielding and Fracture in Polymersp. 265
Chain Scission and Disentanglementp. 265
Shear Yielding and Crazingp. 265
Crack-Tip Behaviorp. 267
Rubber Tougheningp. 268
Fatiguep. 270
Fiber-Reinforced Plasticsp. 270
Overview of Failure Mechanismsp. 271
Delaminationp. 272
Compressive Failurep. 275
Notch Strengthp. 278
Fatigue Damagep. 280
Ceramics and Ceramic Compositesp. 282
Microcrack Tougheningp. 285
Transformation Tougheningp. 286
Ductile Phase Tougheningp. 287
Fiber and Whisker Tougheningp. 288
Concrete and Rockp. 291
Referencesp. 293
Applicationsp. 297
Fracture Toughness Testing of Metalsp. 299
General Considerationsp. 299
Specimen Configurationsp. 299
Specimen Orientationp. 301
Fatigue Precrackingp. 303
Instrumentationp. 305
Side Groovingp. 307
K[subscript Ic] Testingp. 308
ASTM E 399p. 309
Shortcomings of E 399 and Similar Standardsp. 312
K-R Curve Testingp. 316
Specimen Designp. 317
Experimental Measurement of K-R Curvesp. 318
J Testing of Metalsp. 320
The Basic Test Procedure and J[subscript Ic] Measurementsp. 320
J-R Curve Testingp. 322
Critical J Values for Unstable Fracturep. 324
CTOD Testingp. 326
Dynamic and Crack-Arrest Toughnessp. 329
Rapid Loading in Fracture Testingp. 329
K[subscript Ia] Measurementsp. 330
Fracture Testing of Weldmentsp. 334
Specimen Design and Fabricationp. 334
Notch Location and Orientationp. 335
Fatigue Precrackingp. 337
Posttest Analysisp. 337
Testing and Analysis of Steels in the Ductile-Brittle Transition Regionp. 338
Qualitative Toughness Testsp. 340
Charpy and Izod Impact Testp. 341
Drop Weight Testp. 342
Drop Weight Tear and Dynamic Tear Testsp. 344
Stress Intensity, Compliance, and Limit Load Solutions for Laboratory Specimensp. 344
Referencesp. 350
Fracture Testing of Nonmetalsp. 353
Fracture Toughness Measurements in Engineering Plasticsp. 353
The Suitability of K and J for Polymersp. 353
K-Controlled Fracturep. 354
J-Controlled Fracturep. 357
Precracking and Other Practical Mattersp. 360
K[subscript Ic] Testingp. 362
J Testingp. 365
Experimental Estimates of Time-Dependent Fracture Parametersp. 369
Qualitative Fracture Tests on Plasticsp. 371
Interlaminar Toughness of Compositesp. 373
Ceramicsp. 378
Chevron-Notched Specimensp. 378
Bend Specimens Precracked by Bridge Indentationp. 380
Referencesp. 382
Application to Structuresp. 385
Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanicsp. 385
K[subscript 1] for Part-Through Cracksp. 387
Influence Coefficients for Polynomial Stress Distributionsp. 388
Weight Functions for Arbitrary Loadingp. 392
Primary, Secondary, and Residual Stressesp. 394
A Warning about LEFMp. 395
The CTOD Design Curvep. 395
Elastic-Plastic J-Integral Analysisp. 397
The EPRI J-Estimation Procedurep. 398
Theoretical Backgroundp. 398
Estimation Equationsp. 399
Comparison with Experimental J Estimatesp. 401
The Reference Stress Approachp. 403
Ductile Instability Analysisp. 405
Some Practical Considerationsp. 408
Failure Assessment Diagramsp. 410
Original Conceptp. 410
J-Based FADp. 412
Approximations of the FAD Curvep. 415
Estimating the Reference Stressp. 416
Application to Welded Structuresp. 423
Incorporating Weld Residual Stressesp. 423
Weld Misalignmentp. 426
Weld Strength Mismatchp. 427
Primary vs. Secondary Stresses in the FAD Methodp. 428
Ductile-Tearing Analysis with the FADp. 430
Standardized FAD-Based Proceduresp. 430
Probabilistic Fracture Mechanicsp. 432
Stress Intensity and Fully Plastic J Solutions for Selected Configurationsp. 434
Referencesp. 449
Fatigue Crack Propagationp. 451
Similitude in Fatiguep. 451
Empirical Fatigue Crack Growth Equationsp. 453
Crack Closurep. 457
A Closer Look at Crack-Wedging Mechanismsp. 460
Effects of Loading Variables on Closurep. 463
The Fatigue Thresholdp. 464
The Closure Model for the Thresholdp. 465
A Two-Criterion Modelp. 466
Threshold Behavior in Inert Environmentsp. 470
Variable Amplitude Loading and Retardationp. 473
Linear Damage Model for Variable Amplitude Fatiguep. 474
Reverse Plasticity at the Crack Tipp. 475
The Effect of Overloads and Underloadsp. 478
Models for Retardation and Variable Amplitude Fatiguep. 484
Growth of Short Cracksp. 488
Microstructurally Short Cracksp. 491
Mechanically Short Cracksp. 491
Micromechanisms of Fatiguep. 491
Fatigue in Region IIp. 491
Micromechanisms Near the Thresholdp. 494
Fatigue at High [Delta]K Valuesp. 495
Fatigue Crack Growth Experimentsp. 495
Crack Growth Rate and Threshold Measurementp. 496
Closure Measurementsp. 498
A Proposed Experimental Definition of [Delta]K[subscript eff]p. 500
Damage Tolerance Methodologyp. 501
Application of The J Contour Integral to Cyclic Loadingp. 504
Definition of [Delta]Jp. 504
Path Independence of [Delta]Jp. 506
Small-Scale Yielding Limitp. 507
Referencesp. 507
Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Metalsp. 511
Corrosion Principlesp. 511
Electrochemical Reactionsp. 511
Corrosion Current and Polarizationp. 514
Electrode Potential and Passivityp. 514
Cathodic Protectionp. 515
Types of Corrosionp. 516
Environmental Cracking Overviewp. 516
Terminology and Classification of Cracking Mechanismsp. 516
Occluded Chemistry of Cracks, Pits, and Crevicesp. 517
Crack Growth Rate vs. Applied Stress Intensityp. 518
The Threshold for EACp. 520
Small Crack Effectsp. 521
Static, Cyclic, and Fluctuating Loadsp. 523
Cracking Morphologyp. 523
Life Predictionp. 523
Stress Corrosion Crackingp. 525
The Film Rupture Modelp. 527
Crack Growth Rate in Stage IIp. 528
Metallurgical Variables that Influence SCCp. 528
Corrosion Product Wedgingp. 529
Hydrogen Embrittlementp. 529
Cracking Mechanismsp. 530
Variables that Affect Cracking Behaviorp. 531
Loading Rate and Load Historyp. 531
Strengthp. 533
Amount of Available Hydrogenp. 535
Temperaturep. 535
Corrosion Fatiguep. 538
Time-Dependent and Cycle-Dependent Behaviorp. 538
Typical Datap. 541
Mechanismsp. 543
Film Rupture Modelsp. 544
Hydrogen Environment Embrittlementp. 544
Surface Filmsp. 544
The Effect of Corrosion Product Wedging on Fatiguep. 544
Experimental Methodsp. 545
Tests on Smooth Specimensp. 546
Fracture Mechanics Test Methodsp. 547
Referencesp. 552
Computational Fracture Mechanicsp. 553
Overview of Numerical Methodsp. 553
The Finite Element Methodp. 554
The Boundary Integral Equation Methodp. 556
Traditional Methods in Computational Fracture Mechanicsp. 558
Stress and Displacement Matchingp. 558
Elemental Crack Advancep. 559
Contour Integrationp. 560
Virtual Crack Extension: Stiffness Derivative Formulationp. 560
Virtual Crack Extension: Continuum Approachp. 561
The Energy Domain Integralp. 563
Theoretical Backgroundp. 563
Generalization to Three Dimensionsp. 566
Finite Element Implementationp. 568
Mesh Designp. 570
Linear Elastic Convergence Studyp. 577
Analysis of Growing Cracksp. 585
Properties of Singularity Elementsp. 587
Quadrilateral Elementp. 587
Triangular Elementp. 589
Referencesp. 590
Practice Problemsp. 593
Chapter 1p. 593
Chapter 2p. 593
Chapter 3p. 596
Chapter 4p. 598
Chapter 5p. 599
Chapter 6p. 600
Chapter 7p. 600
Chapter 8p. 603
Chapter 9p. 605
Chapter 10p. 607
Chapter 11p. 608
Chapter 12p. 609
Indexp. 611
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780849316562
ISBN-10: 0849316561
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 640
Published: 24th June 2005
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 26.2 x 18.7  x 4.2
Weight (kg): 1.3
Edition Number: 3
Edition Type: Revised