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Foundations of Systematics and Biogeography - David M. Williams

Foundations of Systematics and Biogeography

Hardcover Published: January 2008
ISBN: 9780387727288
Number Of Pages: 309

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"This volume draws attention to the seminal studies and important advances that have shaped systematic and biogeographic thinking and continue to influence its direction today. It traces concepts in homology and classification from the 19th century to the present through the provision of a unique anthology of scientific writings from Goethe, Agassiz, Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Owen, Naef, Zangerl and Nelson, among others. In addition, current attitudes and practices in comparative biology are interrogated, particularly in relation to evolutionary studies leading to a re-statement of the principal aims of the discipline. In order to alert prospective students to pitfalls common in systematics and biogeography, the book highlights three principal messages: biological classifications and their explanatory mechanisms are separate notions; most, if not all, homology concepts pre-date the works of Darwin; and that the foundation of all comparative biology is the concept of relationship - neither 'similarity' nor 'genealogical hypotheses of descent' are sufficient. Foundations of Systematics and Biogeography is an ideal volume for students, academics, researchers and professionals in the fields of systematics, biogeography, evolutionary biology and palaeontology."--BOOK JACKET.

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"Using a historical approach, Williams (Natural History Museum, London) and Ebach (Freie Universitat, Berlin) illuminate the differences among the competing philosophical camps of systematicists. Their work provides incisive definitions of many conceptual and interpretational aspects of systematics and biogeography. ... The authors' apparent intent is ... to provide focus for the next phase of debate on the practice and philosophy of phylogenetics. Summing Up: Recommended. Graduate students and researchers/faculty." (S. R. Fegley, CHOICE, Vol. 45 (9), 2008)

"This is a book worth pondering. ... Williams and Ebach have produced a book from which almost all of us can learn things we did not know about the history and practice of our field. It should be especially useful for students, who may even discover that there is more to systematics than just choosing a model, running some software, and varying its parameters until the results seem at least vaguely palatable." (Norman I. Platnick, Systematic Biology, Vol. 85, 2009)

Introduction: Systematics, Evolution, and Classificationp. 1
The Evolution of "Cladistics"p. 2
What Is Cladistics?p. 2
What Is Cladistics-Again?p. 6
Cladistic Analysisp. 9
Cladograms and Treesp. 9
Cladograms and Evidencep. 12
Cladistic Classificationp. 14
Cladistic Classification and Phylogenyp. 14
Cladistic Classification and the Perils of Paraphylyp. 17
Overviewp. 18
Systematics as Problem-Solvingp. 21
The Problemp. 21
The Solutionsp. 21
Discovering Solutionsp. 24
The Archetypep. 28
The Dynamic Organism: Bildungp. 28
The Beginnings of Comparative Biology: Goethe's Archetypep. 29
Visualizing the Archetypep. 30
Metamorphosisp. 32
Urhomologiep. 33
Relating the Ideal Organismp. 34
Transformation and Goethe's Archetypep. 35
Ernst Haeckel and Systematische Phylogeniep. 37
Ernst Haeckel and Darwinp. 37
Haeckel's Genealogical Oaks and Stick "Trees"p. 38
Heinrich Georg Bronn: Trunks and Twigsp. 39
Schleicher, Linguistics & Treesp. 45
Haeckel and Palaeontological Truthp. 47
The German Development of Morphology: From Ernst Haeckel to Willi Hennigp. 53
Post-Haeckelian Systematicsp. 53
After Haeckel: Spemann and Homologyp. 55
Adolf Naef and "Systematische Morphologie" (Systematic Morphology)p. 56
Konrad Lorenz, Homology, and Systematicsp. 63
Willi Hennig and the Resurrection of Transformational Systematicsp. 64
A Postscript on Naef's Criteria: Patterson's Homology Testingp. 67
The Similarity Testp. 69
The Complement Relationp. 72
Two Homologiesp. 74
The Conjunction Testp. 76
The Congruence Testp. 78
Rejection of Patterson's Testsp. 80
Pattern Cladisticsp. 82
Preamblep. 86
Discovering Leon Croizatp. 87
Erik Stensio, Vertebrate Palaeontology, and the Birth of Cladisticsp. 89
Lars Brundin, Vertebrate Palaeontology, and the Growth of Cladisticsp. 93
Lars Brundin and Leon Croizat: Conflict over Originsp. 95
The London Reaction: A Salmon, a Lungfish, a Cow, and the Vertebrate Palaeontologistsp. 96
Two Schools and Extinct Fishesp. 98
A Salmon, a Lungfish, a Cow, and Some Vertebrate Palaeontologistsp. 100
Exhibitions and Cladisticsp. 102
Mammals and More "Dinosaur" Cladisticsp. 103
Creationism, Marxism, Gradualismp. 106
Halstead and Evolutionp. 107
More Creationismp. 111
Karl Popper and Cladisticsp. 112
Even More Creationists: "Remember, Remember the 5th of November, Gunpowder, Treason and Plot..."p. 113
The Beginnings in New York: Fossils and Reformp. 117
New York Collaborations: Distributions and Historical Biogeographyp. 119
The Two Cladisticsp. 122
Overviewp. 123
Homologues and Homologyp. 126
The Search of the Unit of Classificationp. 126
Homologues and Analoguesp. 131
Homology and Analogyp. 131
Homologyp. 133
Homotypep. 134
Analogyp. 135
The Conceptual Split: Owen's Archetype and the Path to Transformationp. 136
Parts and Their Meaningp. 137
Discovering Homologuesp. 139
Homologues and Criteriap. 139
Homologues and Pheneticsp. 141
Homologues and Cladisticsp. 146
The Data Matrixp. 149
The Matrix: A Short Historical Digressionp. 152
Homology and Systematicsp. 155
Natural Systems, Affinity, and Analogyp. 155
William Sharp MacLeay and "Affinity" and "Analogy"p. 155
The Horae Entomologicae (MacLeay 1819-1821) and Afterp. 158
Westwood's Affinity and Analogyp. 160
Strickland's Affinity and Analogyp. 161
Owen and Strickland on Homology and Analogyp. 162
Homology and Relationshipp. 163
Homology. Analogy, Parts, and Wholesp. 165
Homology and Transformationp. 168
The Process of Changep. 168
Material Transformationp. 169
Phylogenetic (Historical) Transformationp. 169
Ontogenetic Transformationp. 171
Material Transformation and the Conflict of Causesp. 173
Logical Transformationp. 174
Generalised Causesp. 175
Transformation Revisitedp. 177
Character Conflictp. 184
The Problem of Conflictp. 184
Cladistic Analysisp. 187
Parsimonyp. 187
Strength of Evidencep. 188
Contradictory Evidencep. 188
Strength of Evidence and Contradictory Evidencep. 190
"Computerised" Parsimonyp. 191
Partial Charactersp. 191
Informative Symplesiomorphyp. 192
Resolving Conflictp. 193
The Data Matrix-Again: Component Charactersp. 194
Compatibilityp. 195
Component Analysis (Nelson 1979, Nelson & Platnick 1981)p. 198
General Component Analysis (Nelson 1979, Nelson & Platnick 1981: 305-323, Page 1989b: 177-180)p. 199
Patterson's General Congruence (1980a, 1982a, 1988a, b)p. 201
Consistent and Congruent Characters (Scotland 1992, 1997, Etching et al. 1998)p. 203
Comparisonp. 203
Component Solutions: Paralogyp. 204
Components and Equivalentsp. 204
Components as Datap. 206
Augmented Component Analysisp. 207
The Meaning of Statements of Relationshipp. 208
The Analyses of Relationshipsp. 210
Three-Item Datap. 210
The Relationship Between Three-Item Statements and Binary Charactersp. 210
The Relationship Between Three-Item Statements and Multi-State Charactersp. 213
Cladogram Length and Three-Item Statementsp. 213
Information Measures: How Good Is a Three-Item Cladogram?p. 213
Minimal Treesp. 213
Explanationsp. 216
"Reversals"p. 216
Alternatives to Simulationp. 217
"Nullius in Verba" (Nelson 1996): Outgroups, Polarity, and Datap. 220
Precision and Simple Matrices (Platnick et al. 1996)p. 224
Comparison of Cladograms and Single Non-Conflicting Charactersp. 224
Summaryp. 227
Biogeographical Relationships, Evolution, and Classificationp. 228
Preludep. 228
The Threefold Parallelism: Its Beginningp. 231
Haeckel's Hypothetische Skizze des monophyletischen Ursprungs und der Verbreitung der 12 menschen-species von lemurien aus uber die erde and the concept of chorologyp. 233
The Development of Chorologyp. 236
Vicariance Versus Dispersal: Another "False War"p. 240
Originsp. 241
Realms, Regions, and Provincesp. 244
Agassiz's (1854) Geographical Realms: The Natural Provinces of Mankindp. 246
Regions, Homology, and Relationshipsp. 249
Sclater, Huxley, and the Classification of Regionsp. 249
Croizat's Radical Realms: Ocean Basin and Cladogramsp. 251
The Threefold Parallelism: ...and Its Endp. 253
Systematic Biogeography: The Rediscovery of Classificationp. 254
Area Homologyp. 255
Defining the Biotic Area: Biotic Morphology or Taxonomyp. 255
Towards Area Monophylyp. 255
Area Cladistics: Interpreting Area Monophylyp. 257
Epiloguep. 259
Referencesp. 262
Indexp. 305
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780387727288
ISBN-10: 0387727280
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 309
Published: January 2008
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.88  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.57