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Forest Development in Cold Climates : NATO Science Series A - John Alden

Forest Development in Cold Climates

NATO Science Series A

By: John Alden (Editor), J. Louise Mastrantonio (Editor), Soren Odum (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 30th June 1993
ISBN: 9780306444807
Number Of Pages: 570

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As forests decline in temperate and tropical climates, highly-developed countries and those striving for greater economic and social benefits are beginning to utilize marginal forests of high-latitude and mountainous regions for resources to satisfy human needs. The benefits of marginal forests range from purely aesthetic to providing resources for producing many goods and services demanded by a growing world population. Increased demands for forest resources and amenities and recent warming of high- latitude climates have generated interest in reforestation and afforestation of marginal habitats in cold regions. Afforestation of treeless landscapes improves the environment for human habitation and provides for land use and economic prosperity. Trees are frequently planted in cold climates to rehabilitate denuded sites, for the amenity of homes and villages, and for wind shelter, recreation, agroforestry, and industrial uses. In addition, forests in cold climates reduce the albedo of the earth's surface in winter, and in summer they are small but significant long-lived sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Finally, growth and reproductive success of forests at their geographic limits are sensitive indices of climatic change. As efforts to adapt forests to cold climates increase, however, new afforestation problems arise and old ones intensify. Austral, northern, and altitudinal tree limits are determined by many different factors. Current hypotheses for high-latitude tree limits are based on low growing-season temperatures that inhibit plant development and reproduction.

Socioeconomic Importance of Forests in Icelandp. 1
Biochemical and Physiolocical Requirements of Trees for Forest Development Beyond Tree Limits
Molecular Bases for Adaptation of Coniferous Trees to Cold Climatesp. 15
Growth and Development of Northern Forest Trees as Affected by Temperature and Lightp. 43
Testing Winter Desiccation Resistance for Species and Provenance Selection at Timberlinesp. 59
Growth of Mountain Birch (Betula Pubescens Ehrh.) in Response to Changing Temperaturep. 65
Performance of Mountain Birch in Different Environments in Sweden and Iceland: Implications for Afforestationp. 79
Environmental Limitations of Forest Development at and Beyond Tree Limits
Causes of Alpine Timberline: A Review of the Hypothesesp. 89
Physiology of Trees at Treelinep. 105
Treeline in Relation to Climate, with Special Reference to Oceanic Areasp. 115
Pliocene Fossil Nothofagus (Southern Beech) from Antarctica: Phytogeography, Dispersal Strategies, and Survival in High Latitude Glacial-Deglacial Environmentsp. 135
Predicting Afforestation Success during Climatic Warming at the Northern Limit of Forestsp. 167
Climate Change as Seen by Trees and by Climate Modelersp. 189
Effects of Wind On Boreal Forestsp. 203
Long-Term Biometeorological Monitoring at Two Forest Sites in Iceland and Newfoundland: Initial Resultsp. 227
Potential Tree Species and Provenances for Forest Development in Cold Climates
Genetic Diversity of Tree Populations at Their Arctic Limitsp. 241
Potential Species and Provenances for Forest Development in Cold Climatesp. 251
Species and Provenance Choice at Northern Tree Limits in Maritime Climatesp. 265
Seed Collections from North American Trees for Marginal Sites in the Nordic Countriesp. 277
The Uses of Lignoses in Horticulture in Icelandp. 293
Provenance Selection, Testing, and Breeding to Accelerate Adaptation and Growth of Trees and Shrubs
Accelerating Adaptation of Trees at Tree Limits by Selective Breedingp. 299
Selection and Breeding of Scots Pine for Northern Swedenp. 321
Provenance and Individual Variation in Climatic Hardiness of Scots Pine in Northern Finlandp. 333
Hybridization among Provenances of Lodgepole Pinep. 343
Genetics, Cytogenetics, and Molecular Genetics of icelandic Birch: Implications for Breeding and Reforestationp. 357
Chloroplast DNA Diversity, Phylogenetics, and Hybridization in Piceap. 369
Genetic Vadation in Early Frost Tolerance of Spruce from Northwestern North Americap. 383
Case Histories of Forest Development Beyond Tree Limits
History of Tree Planting on the Aleutian Islandsp. 393
Afforestation of Lutz Spruce, Sitka Spruce, and Norway Spruce in the Vesteraalen Islands, Norwayp. 427
Development of an Environmental Forest and Arboretum on the Outer Coast of Finnmark County, Norwayp. 437
Forest Development in Icelandp. 453
Potential Treeline in the Faroe Islandsp. 463
Forest Trials at High Elevations in Britainp. 475
Wind and Wave Forests: A Case Study and Implications for Silviculturep. 491
The Alpine Timberline of Tibetp. 511
Forestry in New Zealand's Southern High Countryp. 529
Summaries of Working Group Sessionsp. 549
Species Indexp. 555
Subject Indexp. 559
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780306444807
ISBN-10: 0306444801
Series: NATO Science Series A
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 570
Published: 30th June 1993
Publisher: Springer Science+Business Media
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.4 x 15.6  x 3.81
Weight (kg): 2.2