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Focus Made Easy : A Complete Focus Handbook for Users and Programmers - Richard R. Taha

Focus Made Easy

A Complete Focus Handbook for Users and Programmers

Paperback Published: 1st August 1991
ISBN: 9780133221084
Number Of Pages: 432

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Here's an all-in-one reference to learning and implementing Focus -- one of the major fourth-generation languages in use today. Simple to understand and apply, this volume assumes no prior computing or programming language, the first part deals with the Focus Report Writer, showing readers how to use the Focus report writer features to create and update files. The second part deals with database design and file maintenance. Ideal for Focus end-users looking to solve business problems in accounting, human resources, treasury, engineering, operations, customer services, and marketing department; as well as for systems analysts, designers, and managers interested in prototyping new applications.

Preface and Acknowledgementsp. xiii
The Focus Report Writer
Overview of Computer Systems and Introduction to Focusp. 1
Computer System Componentsp. 1
Operating Systems Basicsp. 4
Focus Basicsp. 6
The Focus Environmentp. 7
TED (Short for "Text Editor")p. 7
Help Facilityp. 8
TABLE Environmentp. 9
Hot Screenp. 9
GRAPH Environmentp. 11
MODIFY Environmentp. 11
Dialogue Managerp. 11
SCAN and FSCAN Facilitiesp. 12
SQL Translatorp. 12
Screen Painterp. 13
Report Painterp. 13
Import/Export Facilityp. 13
Financial Reporting Language (FRL)p. 13
Statistical Analysis Tool with ANALYSEp. 13
Window Environmentp. 13
Focus TALK Technologyp. 13
The Focus Database Structurep. 14
Master File Description (MFD)p. 15
Focus Filep. 16
Summaryp. 17
The Focus Program Editor: TEDp. 18
Introductionp. 18
TED Tutorialp. 19
Setting up TED under PC/Focusp. 19
PC/Focus Version 5.5p. 25
PC/Focus Release 5.5 Main Menup. 25
Setting up TED under IBM Mainframe and Most Minicomputersp. 27
Writing Programs under TEDp. 29
TED Prefix Commandsp. 30
Other TED Commandsp. 32
Summaryp. 34
Designing and Creating Databases in Focusp. 36
Manual Sequential Filing Systemsp. 36
Automated Third-Generation Filing Systemsp. 37
Database Management Systemsp. 39
Hierarchical Organizationsp. 39
Rules for Designing Hierarchical Databasesp. 43
Focus Formats or Usage Typesp. 44
Detailed Explanation of Fields and Formats of the STAFF Filep. 47
Department Segmentp. 47
Section Segmentp. 47
Employee Segmentp. 47
Key Fieldsp. 49
Master File Descriptionp. 49
Master File Creationp. 51
Using TED to Create a Master File Descriptionp. 51
The FileTalk Facilityp. 52
Summaryp. 66
Designing and Creating Reports with Focusp. 67
Writing Focus Programsp. 67
Check Filep. 68
Describep. 69
? File (Query File)p. 71
Getting Out of the Table Environment and Focusp. 72
Coding Your First TABLE Requestp. 72
Interactive TABLE Requests (Programs)p. 73
Using TED to Write TABLE Requests (Programs)p. 75
Retype Commandp. 79
Online and Offline Commandsp. 79
TABLE Request Verbsp. 81
LISTp. 81
PRINTp. 82
COUNTp. 86
SUMp. 87
HOT Screen Facilityp. 89
Hot Screen Function Keysp. 90
Storing Reports on a Disk Filep. 91
TableTalkp. 93
Summaryp. 98
Sorting, Group Totalling, Control Breaks, and Summarizing of Datap. 99
The BY Phrase or Vertical Sortingp. 99
PRINT and the BY Commandp. 100
LIST and the BY Commandp. 103
COUNT and the BY Commandp. 104
SUM and the BY Commandp. 105
The ACROSS Phrase or Horizontal Sortingp. 106
Other Focus Sort Featuresp. 109
Matrix Reportsp. 109
Rankp. 109
IN-GROUPS-OF and the BY Commandp. 112
Totaling Rows and Columns in a Reportp. 113
Summaryp. 116
Data Selection and Filteringp. 117
Value Comparisonp. 117
Multiple IF Selectionsp. 119
Range Comparison or Range Testingp. 122
SUBSTRING Comparisonp. 125
MASKED VALUES Testingp. 128
SIMILAR Operatorp. 130
WHERE Clausep. 131
Limiting the Number of Records Selected (The IF RECORDLIMIT OR WHERE RECORDLIMIT Relation)p. 133
Summaryp. 136
Designing and Creating Report Headings, Footings, and Labelsp. 137
Some Terms Used in Report Preparationp. 137
Page Headings and Footingsp. 139
Other Report Featuresp. 144
Positioning Text on Headingsp. 149
Including the Date and Time of Execution on the Reportp. 151
Subhead and Subfootp. 154
Designing and Printing Customized Lettersp. 156
Designing and Creating Report Headingsp. 158
Summaryp. 160
Customizing Reportsp. 161
Changing the Default Column Titlesp. 161
Page-Break Handlingp. 164
Skipping Lines and Underlining Textp. 167
Folding Text Lines with OVER and FOLD-LINE Commandsp. 171
Column Positioningp. 175
Summarizing (Totaling) Field Values on Focus Reportsp. 177
Changing the Focus Default Page Numberp. 180
Printing Very Wide Reportsp. 182
Report Generation with Multiple Focus Verbsp. 182
Using ROW-TOTAL and COLUMN-TOTAL with Multiple Verbsp. 184
The IF Clause and Multiple Verbsp. 187
Prefixes or Direct Operatorsp. 187
Summaryp. 193
Creating Work Fields in Focus with Define and Computep. 194
DEFINEp. 194
DEFINE Syntaxp. 195
Mathematical Functionsp. 198
EDIT Functionp. 205
Concatenation Functionp. 211
LAST Functionp. 213
DECODE Functionp. 214
Define Logical Conditionsp. 218
Date Manipulationp. 227
Using Multiple COMPUTE Statementsp. 238
Special Focus Supplied Functionsp. 239
RECOMPUTE and SUMMARIZE Commandsp. 241
RECAP Commandp. 247
Summaryp. 249
Advanced Features of the Focus Report Writerp. 250
HOLD Filesp. 250
ACROSS and HOLDp. 256
Various HOLD Formatsp. 258
SAVE Filesp. 258
JOIN Commandp. 261
Recursive JOINSp. 266
MATCH Commandp. 266
STATIC Cross-Referencesp. 268
Advantages and Disadvantages of JOIN, MATCH, and Static Cross Referencesp. 270
Alternate Views of Filesp. 270
Summaryp. 273
External File Processing and Other Advanced Features of Focusp. 274
Internal Operations of Focusp. 274
Interpretation of TABLE Request Codep. 275
Retrieval of Datap. 275
Processing of Datap. 275
Output and Formatting of Datap. 275
Plots and Graphics in Focusp. 276
Accessing External Filesp. 281
Valid Suffixesp. 283
Valuable Hints for Cobol Programmersp. 286
Missing Segmentsp. 286
Missing Segment Instancesp. 288
Summaryp. 292
Focus Database Design and File Maintenance
File Maintenance using Batch Transactionsp. 294
Advanced Features of Master File Description Entriesp. 294
DEFINEp. 294
TITLEp. 297
ACCEPTp. 299
Updating Focus Files Using Sequential Transactionsp. 300
PROMPTp. 301
MODIFY CRTFORM Statement and FIDELp. 301
FSCAN and SCAN Facilitiesp. 302
Host Language Interface (HLI) Facilityp. 302
FIXFORM Facilityp. 302
Simple Example of the FIXFORM Subcommand to Update a Filep. 303
Elements of the FIXFORM Subcommandp. 306
Other Features of FIXFORMp. 308
COMPUTE Statementp. 312
FIXFORM and Repeating Groupsp. 314
NEXT Statementp. 316
FREEFORM Facilityp. 317
START and STOPp. 319
Summaryp. 321
Interactive File Maintenance with the Prompt Commandp. 323
Promptp. 323
Some Enhancements to the PROMPT Subcommandp. 325
Field Types in Focusp. 333
Data Entry Fieldsp. 334
Display Fieldsp. 334
Turnaround Fieldsp. 334
CASE Logicp. 335
GOTO and IF Statementsp. 335
CASE Logic and the NEXT Statementp. 345
PERFORM Statementp. 346
CASE Logic and Batch Transaction File Processingp. 349
The TRACE Facilityp. 351
Summaryp. 352
CRTFORM: Creating Customized Data Entry and Display Screensp. 354
CRTFORM Facilityp. 354
CRTFORM Invocation with MODIFYp. 354
Improving Our First Modify Requestp. 360
Importance of the COMPUTE Statementp. 364
Review of CRTFORM Fundamentalsp. 365
VALIDATE Statementp. 369
Multiple-Segment File Maintenance Programp. 375
Additional Features of MODIFY Request with CRTFORMp. 379
Use of PF Keys or Function Keysp. 380
Screen Attributesp. 381
CRTFORM LOWER Optionp. 381
FIND Functionp. 382
LOOKUP Functionp. 385
Repeating Groups with CRTFORMp. 389
Using the TEXT Feature with CRTFORMp. 390
Summaryp. 395
Complete Application Development with the Dialogue Managerp. 397
The Complete Application Development Toolp. 397
Introduction and Conventionsp. 397
Store Proceduresp. 398
Dialogue Manager Variablesp. 399
Syntax and Naming Conventionsp. 399
Supplying Values to Variables in Focus Programsp. 403
Full Screen Data Entry with -CRTFORMp. 410
Other Dialogue Manager Control Statementsp. 415
Testing New Programs or Procedures in Focusp. 420
Use of the STACK Facility to Help with Debuggingp. 421
Automatic Cursor Positioningp. 422
Summaryp. 424
Odds and Endsp. 426
LET Facilityp. 426
Using the LET Command to Create Shorthand Commandsp. 426
Translating Foreign Languages into Focusp. 426
Creating More Flexible and User Friendly Programsp. 428
Null Substitutionp. 429
LET Utilitiesp. 430
SET Commandp. 430
FSCAN and SCANp. 434
REBUILD Utilityp. 444
USE Commandp. 447
COMPILE and LOAD Commandsp. 448
Focus Query Commandsp. 450
Summaryp. 450
Files, Master File Descriptions and Data used in the Bookp. 452
Tabletalk Tutorialp. 460
Ordering the Program Diskettep. 491
Indexp. 493
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780133221084
ISBN-10: 0133221083
Series: Complete Focus Handbook for Users and Programmers
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 432
Published: 1st August 1991
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.37 x 17.78  x 1.93
Weight (kg): 0.75