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Fluoropolymer Applications in the Chemical Processing Industries : The Definitive User's Guide and Databook :  The Definitive User's Guide and Databook - Sina Ebnesajjad

Fluoropolymer Applications in the Chemical Processing Industries : The Definitive User's Guide and Databook

The Definitive User's Guide and Databook

Hardcover Published: December 2004
ISBN: 9780815515029
Number Of Pages: 592

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This handbook is a self-contained collection of data and information on applications of fluoropolymers components for corrosion control in chemical processing industries. Because of their superior properties, fluoropolymers have been rapidly replacing metal alloys for preserving the purity of processing streams in the chemical processing, plastics, food, pharmaceutical, semiconductor, and pulp and paper industries. This complete compendium of information about fluoropolymer lining materials and structural piping and tubing contains problem-solving tools for chemical processing professionals: equipment manufacturers, plant operators, and product design and manufacturing engineers.

Fluoropolymer Properties: Permeation and environmental stress cracking; detailed guidelines for selecting fluoropolymers for corrosion control. Fluoropolymer Components: Comprehensive information on the design, construction, manufacturing, fabrication and finishing technologies of fluoropolymer component parts of equipment exposed to harsh chemical environments. Diagnostic: Processing equipment operation and maintenance of the fluoropolymer components; laboratory techniques to determine the cause of the failure of parts, and a modelling methodology to predict and analyze failure. Economic: Cost analysis, safety, recycling, and global growth trends of the future of fluoropolymers components for corrosion control. References: This stand-alone volume is complete; no other reference is needed. However, many references are included in each chapter for more in-depth study of particular topics.

"This fecund and useful volume sets up lively possibilities for exploring the entire spectrum of fluoropolymer applications in chemical processing industries." - Current Engineering Practice, Vol. 46, 2006

Introduction to Fluoropolymersp. 1
Introductionp. 1
What are Fluoropolymers?p. 1
Fundamental Properties of Fluoropolymersp. 2
Developmental History of Fluoropolymersp. 3
Examples of Uses of Fluoropolymersp. 5
Referencesp. 6
Materials of Constructionp. 7
Introductionp. 7
Historical Backgroundp. 7
Definition of Polymer-based Materialsp. 8
Comparison Between Polymer-based Materials and Metalsp. 8
Position of Fluoropolymers in the Materials Spectrump. 10
Applications of Polymer-based Materials for Corrosion Controlp. 10
Applications of Fluoropolymers for Corrosion Controlp. 10
Referencesp. 14
Properties of Neat (Unfilled) and Filled Fluoropolymersp. 15
Introductionp. 15
Influence of Processing on Fluoroplasticsp. 15
Chemical Compatibility of Fluoropolymersp. 15
Chemical Compatibility of Perfluoropolymersp. 15
Effect of Ozone on Fluoropolymersp. 16
Oxygen Compatibility of PTFEp. 17
Chemical Compatibility of Partially Fluorinated Fluoropolymersp. 17
Chemical Compatibility of Polychlorotrifluoroethylenep. 18
Permeation Fundamentalsp. 18
Permeation Measurement and Datap. 20
Environmental Stress Crackingp. 21
Properties and Characteristics of PTFEp. 23
Introduction to Filled PTFE Compoundsp. 23
Granular-based Compoundsp. 23
Fine Powder-based Compoundsp. 25
Compounding with Engineering Polymersp. 25
Reinforced Gasketing Materialp. 26
Co-Coagulated Compoundsp. 26
Fabrication of Parts from Compoundsp. 26
Typical Properties of Filled Fluoropolymersp. 27
Mechanical Properties of PTFEp. 28
Deformation Under Load (Creep) and Cold Flowp. 35
Fatigue Propertiesp. 36
Impact Strengthp. 36
Hardnessp. 36
Frictionp. 36
PV Limitp. 47
Abrasion and Wearp. 47
Electrical Properties of PTFEp. 47
Thermal Behavior of PTFEp. 47
Thermal Stabilityp. 47
Thermal Expansionp. 51
Thermal Conductivity and Heat Capacityp. 51
Heat Deflection Temperaturep. 51
Irradiation Resistance of PTFEp. 51
Standard Measurement Methods for PTFEp. 52
Properties and Characteristics of Melt-processible Fluoroplasticsp. 55
Mechanical and Dynamic Propertiesp. 55
Tensile Propertiesp. 55
Modulip. 55
Deformation Under Load (Creep)p. 69
Poisson's Ratiop. 69
Flex Fatigue Propertiesp. 69
Impact Strengthp. 70
Hardnessp. 82
Friction, Wear, and Abrasionp. 82
Thermal Properties of Melt-processible Fluoropolymersp. 86
Thermal Stabilityp. 86
Temperature-related Propertiesp. 89
Thermal Agingp. 89
Weatherability of Melt-processible Fluoroplasticsp. 94
Electrical Properties of Melt-processible Fluoroplasticsp. 96
Perfluoroalkoxy Polymersp. 96
FEPp. 98
PVDFp. 98
ETFEp. 100
ECTFEp. 100
Optical and Spectral Properties of Melt-processible Fluoroplasticsp. 100
Radiation Effect on Melt-processible Fluoroplasticsp. 100
Flammability of Melt-processible Fluoroplasticsp. 110
Biofilm Formation of Melt-processible Fluorplasticsp. 110
Referencesp. 112
Selecting Fluoropolymers for Corrosion Controlp. 117
Introductionp. 117
Corrosion of Metalsp. 117
Corrosion of Polymer Materialsp. 117
Approaches to Selectionp. 117
Economics of Selecting Fluoropolymersp. 118
Preparing to Determine Compatibilityp. 118
Current Technology for Determining Compatibilityp. 118
Experiencep. 118
Manufacturers' Literaturep. 119
Testingp. 149
Coupon Testingp. 149
Simulated Testingp. 150
Special Testingp. 154
Fabrication Considerations in Materials Selectionp. 154
Inspection and Maintenance Aspects of Materials Selectionp. 157
Referencesp. 157
Manufacturing of Parts from Polytetrafluoroethylene Polymersp. 161
Granular Resin Processingp. 161
Resin Selectionp. 161
Compression Moldingp. 162
Equipmentp. 162
Densification and Sintering Mechanismp. 163
Billet Moldingp. 164
Automatic Moldingp. 167
Isostatic Moldingp. 168
Introduction to Isostatic Moldingp. 168
Comparison of Isostatic with Other Fabrication Techniquesp. 169
Wet- and Dry-Bag Isostatic Moldingp. 170
Ram Extrusionp. 170
Introduction to Ram Extrusionp. 170
Ram Extrusion: Basic Technologyp. 170
Fine Powder Resin Processingp. 174
Resin Handling and Storagep. 174
Paste Extrusion Fundamentalsp. 175
Extrusion Aid or Lubricantp. 176
Wire Coatingp. 176
Blending the Resin with Lubricantp. 176
Preformingp. 176
Extrusion Equipment and Processp. 177
Extrusion of Tubingp. 178
Spaghetti Tubingp. 178
Pressure Hosesp. 178
Blending Lubricant and Pigment and Preformingp. 183
Extrusion Process for Pressure Hosesp. 183
Quality Control of Pressure Hosesp. 183
Unsintered Tapep. 185
Fluoropolymer Dispersion Processingp. 185
Dispersion Applicationsp. 186
Storage and Handling of Dispersionsp. 186
Dispersion Formulation and Characteristicsp. 187
Formulationp. 188
Glass Cloth Coating by Dispersionp. 188
Equipmentp. 189
Processingp. 189
Dispersion Impregnation of Flax and Polyaramidep. 191
Processingp. 191
Coating Metal and Hard Surfaces with Dispersionp. 191
Referencesp. 192
Manufacturing Parts from Melt-processible Fluoropolymersp. 193
Introductionp. 193
Materials of Constructionp. 193
Rheology of Fluoropolymer Meltsp. 193
Characterization of Rheology of Fluoropolymersp. 194
Thermal Stability of Fluoropolymersp. 198
Melt Extrusionp. 199
The Extruderp. 199
Film Extrusionp. 202
Sheet Extrusionp. 202
Productionp. 202
Pipe and Tube Extrusionp. 202
Productionp. 203
Coextrusionp. 203
Drawdown Ratio (DDR)p. 205
Fluoropolymer Tube Extrusionp. 206
Sizing of Tubesp. 206
Small Diameter Tubesp. 207
Medium Diameter Tubesp. 207
Large Diameter Tubesp. 208
Heat Shrink Tubesp. 208
Fluoropolymer Film Extrusionp. 209
PVDF Filmsp. 210
ETFE and ECTFE Filmsp. 214
Perfluoropolymer Filmsp. 217
Injection Moldingp. 219
Injection Molding of Fluoropolymersp. 219
Injection Molding Equipmentp. 219
Process Conditions and Operationsp. 222
Dimensional Stability of Partsp. 225
Rotational Moldingp. 226
Basic Process Technologyp. 229
Rotomolding and Rotolining Processing Conditionsp. 229
ECTFEp. 231
ETFEp. 232
PFAp. 232
Conclusionp. 233
Other Part Manufacturing Techniquesp. 235
Compression Molding of Fluoropolymersp. 235
Transfer Molding of Fluoropolymersp. 237
Mold Designp. 237
Operation of the Moldp. 239
Transfer Molding Process Variablesp. 239
Examples of Transfer Molded Partsp. 241
Blow Molding Fluoropolymersp. 244
Vacuum Baggingp. 248
Referencesp. 250
Fabrication Techniques for Fluoropolymersp. 253
Introductionp. 253
Machiningp. 253
Sawing and Shearingp. 254
Drilling (Tapping and Threading)p. 254
Skivingp. 254
Adhesive Bonding Methodsp. 255
Contact Adhesivesp. 255
Bonding Adhesivesp. 255
Sodium Etchingp. 256
Plasma Treatmentp. 258
Flame Treatmentp. 261
Corona Discharge (Hybrid Plasma) Treatmentp. 262
Welding and Joiningp. 265
Welding Techniquesp. 266
Welding PTFEp. 267
Welding FEPp. 269
Welding PFAp. 269
Welding PVDFp. 271
Welding ETFEp. 273
Heat Bondingp. 273
Sheet Linersp. 274
Thermoformingp. 274
Other Processesp. 274
Referencesp. 276
Design and Construction of Linings and Vesselsp. 279
Introductionp. 279
Lining of Vesselsp. 279
Adhesively Bonded Linings for Vesselsp. 280
Rotoliningp. 281
Spray and Baked Coatingsp. 286
Powder Coating Processesp. 287
Liquid Dispersion Coatingsp. 295
Loose Liningp. 295
Dual Laminatep. 296
Lining of Pipes and Fittingsp. 299
Lined Valvesp. 299
Plug Valvesp. 301
Ball Valvesp. 301
Butterfly Valvesp. 301
Diaphragm Valvesp. 301
Clamp Valvesp. 301
Lined Hosesp. 301
Lined Expansion Jointsp. 304
Lining or Coating of Internalsp. 304
Design and Fabrication of Vessels for Liningp. 304
Shop Versus Field Fabricationp. 304
Referencesp. 309
Operations and Maintenancep. 311
Operationsp. 311
Maintenancep. 311
Visual Examinationp. 311
Visual Inspections of Vesselsp. 311
Visual Inspection of Piping and Fittingsp. 312
Visual Inspection of Valvesp. 312
Visual Inspection of Hosesp. 312
Visual Inspection of Expansion Jointsp. 312
Nondestructive and Destructive Examinationp. 312
Non-Intrusive Examinationp. 313
Risk-based Inspection Strategy (RBI)p. 313
Repairsp. 314
Failure Analysisp. 315
Introductionp. 315
Part Failurep. 315
Defect Analysisp. 316
Application of Failure Analysis Methodologyp. 322
Infrared Spectroscopyp. 324
Electron Microscopy Techniquesp. 328
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)p. 328
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)p. 328
Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Spectroscopyp. 328
Mass Spectroscopy (MS)p. 328
Gas Chromatography (GC)p. 331
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)p. 331
Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)p. 331
Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)p. 332
Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)p. 339
Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA)p. 342
Surface Analysisp. 342
Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA)p. 342
Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS)p. 345
Examples of Failure Analysisp. 345
Case 1: Failed Lined Pipep. 345
Case 2: Failed Check Valvesp. 345
Case 3: Black Spots on FEP Coatingp. 348
Case 4: Braided Hose Failurep. 348
Physical Defects Due to Part Fabricationp. 350
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)p. 350
Melt-processible Fluoropolymersp. 352
Injection Moldingp. 352
Rotational and Transfer Moldingp. 352
Measurement of Flawsp. 352
Referencesp. 356
Modeling and Mechanical Analysis of Fluoropolymer Componentsp. 359
Introductionp. 359
Review of Modeling Techniquesp. 359
Currently Available Material Modelsp. 360
Linear Elasticityp. 362
Hyperelasticityp. 362
Linear Viscoelasticityp. 363
Dual Network Fluoropolymer (DNF) Modelp. 364
Failure and Deformation Predictionsp. 368
Failure under Monotonic Loadingp. 369
Failure under Cyclic Loadingp. 370
Examplesp. 371
Corrugated PTFE Hosep. 371
Threaded Connection Gasketp. 372
Summaryp. 378
Referencesp. 380
Cost Analysisp. 381
Introductionp. 381
Cost Analysisp. 381
Referencesp. 384
Safety, Disposal, and Recycling of Fluoropolymersp. 385
Introductionp. 385
Toxicology of Fluoropolymersp. 385
Thermal Properties of Fluoropolymersp. 385
Emission During Processingp. 386
Safety Measuresp. 386
Ventilationp. 386
Processing and Fabricationp. 389
Sinteringp. 389
Paste Extrusionp. 389
Dispersion Coatingp. 389
Melt Processingp. 389
Machiningp. 390
Soldering and Melt Strippingp. 390
Welding Fluoropolymerp. 390
Welding and Flame-Cutting Fluoropolymer-Lined Metalsp. 390
Spillage Cleanupp. 390
Equipment Cleaning and Maintenancep. 390
Protective Clothingp. 390
Personal Hygienep. 390
Fire Hazardp. 390
Material Incompatibilityp. 391
Food Contact and Medical Applicationsp. 391
Fluoropolymer Scrap and Recyclingp. 391
Environmental Protection and Disposal Methodsp. 391
Referencesp. 392
Future Trendsp. 393
Introductionp. 393
Fluoropolymer Applicationsp. 393
Fluoropolymer Resin Manufacturingp. 393
Growth of Fluoropolymer Industriesp. 393
Technological Needs of Chemical Processing Industryp. 394
Non-destructive and Non-intrusive Condition Assessmentp. 394
Accelerated Testing for Compatibilityp. 394
Referencesp. 394
Permeation Properties of Perfluoroplasticsp. 395
Perfluoroalkoxy Resinp. 395
Permeability to Gasesp. 395
Referencesp. 400
Permeation Properties of Partially Fluorinated Fluoroplasticsp. 401
Polyvinylidene Fluoridep. 401
Permeabilityp. 401
Permeability To Gasesp. 401
Permeability To Liquidsp. 401
Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymerp. 410
Ethylene Chlorotrifluoroethylene Copolymerp. 412
Permeability to Gases and Water Vaporp. 412
Polyvinyl Fluoridep. 417
Fluorinated Polyethylenep. 417
Permeability to Oxygenp. 417
Referencesp. 420
Permeation of Automotive Fuels Through Fluoroplasticsp. 421
Test Methodp. 421
Fuel Typesp. 421
Referencesp. 422
Permeation of Organic and Inorganic Chemicals Through Fluoroplastic Filmsp. 423
Referencesp. 426
Chemical Resistance of Thermoplasticsp. 427
Chemical Resistance of Fluoropolymersp. 427
PDL Resistance Ratingp. 427
Glossaryp. 521
Trademarksp. 549
Indexp. 551
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780815515029
ISBN-10: 0815515022
Series: Plastics Design Library
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 592
Published: December 2004
Publisher: William Andrew Publishing
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 27.9 x 20.3  x 3.73
Weight (kg): 1.84