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Flow and Transport Processes with Complex Obstructions : Applications to Cities, Vegetative Canopies and Industry - Yevgeny A. Gayev

Flow and Transport Processes with Complex Obstructions

Applications to Cities, Vegetative Canopies and Industry

By: Yevgeny A. Gayev (Editor), Julian C. R. Hunt (Editor)

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Published: 17th November 2006
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The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Flow and Transport Processes in Complex - structed Geometries: from cities and vegetative canopies to engineering problems" was held in Kyiv, Ukraine in the period of May 4 - 15, 2004. This book based on the papers presented there provides an overview of this new area in ?uid mechanics and its app- cations that have developed over the past three decades. The subject, whose origins lie both in theory and in practice, is now rapidly developing in many directions. The focus of applied ?uid mechanics research has steadily been shifting from - gineering to environmental applications. In both ?elds there has been great interest in the study of ?ows around obstacles; initially single isolated obstacles, and then groups, together with the e?ects of nearby resistive surfaces, such as the walls of a pipe, the ground or a free surface in hydraulics. Simpli?ed theoretical analysis began with studies of axisymmetric and cylind- cal free-mounted bodies. However other methods had to be used for quantifying the complete ?ow ?elds past arbitrary blu? bodies, either by using experiments or, when powerful computers became available, by direct calculation and solution of the full equations of ?uid dynamics. In most practical cases the Reynolds numbers are too large to compute all the small scale eddy motions which therefore have to be described statistically.

Preface
Canopies, or EPRs
Vegetative canopies in meteorology
Vegetated river beds
Urban canopies
Spraying coolers
Other examples of EPR
Laboratory modelling of the canopy flows
Preliminary conclusion. Turbulence
Discrete and continuum models
Introduction
Over/through canopies
Computational models
Dispersion in canopies
Conclusion
Appendix A: Dispersion in street canyon
Appendix B: Notation and abbreviations
EPR of different structure
EPR of immobile elements
EPRs made up of mobile elements
Turbulence in EPRs
Flow in vegetation canopies
Introduction
Flow Above The Canopy
Flow Within The Canopy
Computational Representations of Canopy Flow
Higher-Order Closure Schemes
Large-Eddy Simulation
Contribution of Canopy Elements
Conditional Sampling and Composite Averaging
Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) Analysis
Summary
Topography and stable stratification
Introduction
The windfield over a canopy covered hill
The scalar field over a canopy covered hill
Stable Stratification
Summary and conclusions
Aquatic Canopies
Introduction: Comparison of Aquatic and Terrestrial Canopies
Emergent Canopies
Diffusion within Emergent Vegetation
Submerged Canopies
Summary
Vorticity annihilation, inviscid blocking
Introduction
Vorticity annihilation
Inviscid blocking
Modelling drag forces
Bubbly flows: high void fraction, high Re
Concluding remarks
Fires in Porous Media
Introduction
Forest and wildland fire statistics
Historic large urban fires
Fire classification
Modeling methodologies
Forest and urban climate meteorology
Fluid mechanics of fires and porous canopies
Fire whirls and fire tornadoes
Numerical Modeling Fire Whirls
Conclusions and recommendations
Air emergencies and urban weather
Introduction
Applications to Urban Meteorology and Air Quality
Applications to Emergency Preparedness
Conclusion
Bibliography
Index
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781402053849
ISBN-10: 1402053843
Series: NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 412
Published: 17th November 2006
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 2.21
Weight (kg): 0.59