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Flash Memories - Paulo Cappelletti

Flash Memories

By: Paulo Cappelletti (Editor), Carla Golla (Editor), Piero Olivo (Editor), Enrico Zanoni (Editor)

Hardcover

Published: 30th June 1999
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A Flash memory is a Non Volatile Memory (NVM) whose "unit cells" are fabricated in CMOS technology and programmed and erased electrically. In 1971, Frohman-Bentchkowsky developed a folating polysilicon gate tran­ sistor [1, 2], in which hot electrons were injected in the floating gate and removed by either Ultra-Violet (UV) internal photoemission or by Fowler­ Nordheim tunneling. This is the "unit cell" of EPROM (Electrically Pro­ grammable Read Only Memory), which, consisting of a single transistor, can be very densely integrated. EPROM memories are electrically programmed and erased by UV exposure for 20-30 mins. In the late 1970s, there have been many efforts to develop an electrically erasable EPROM, which resulted in EEPROMs (Electrically Erasable Programmable ROMs). EEPROMs use hot electron tunneling for program and Fowler-Nordheim tunneling for erase. The EEPROM cell consists of two transistors and a tunnel oxide, thus it is two or three times the size of an EPROM. Successively, the combination of hot carrier programming and tunnel erase was rediscovered to achieve a single transistor EEPROM, called Flash EEPROM. The first cell based on this concept has been presented in 1979 [3]; the first commercial product, a 256K memory chip, has been presented by Toshiba in 1984 [4]. The market did not take off until this technology was proven to be reliable and manufacturable [5].

Flash Memories: an Overview
The Industry Standard Flash Memory Cell
Binary and Multilevel Flash Cells
Physical Aspects of Cell Operation and Reliability
Memory Architecture and Related Issues
Multilevel Flash Memories
Flash Memory Reliability
Flash Memory Testing
Flash Memories: Market, Marketing and Economic Challenges
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792384878
ISBN-10: 0792384873
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 540
Published: 30th June 1999
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 0.92