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Fitness Landscapes and the Origin of Species (MPB-41) : Monographs in Population Biology - Sergey Gavrilets

Fitness Landscapes and the Origin of Species (MPB-41)

Monographs in Population Biology

Paperback Published: 26th July 2004
ISBN: 9780691119830
Number Of Pages: 480

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The origin of species has fascinated both biologists and the general public since the publication of Darwin's "Origin of Species" in 1859. Significant progress in understanding the process was achieved in the "modern synthesis," when Theodosius Dobzhansky, Ernst Mayr, and others reconciled Mendelian genetics with Darwin's natural selection. Although evolutionary biologists have developed significant new theory and data about speciation in the years since the modern synthesis, this book represents the first systematic attempt to summarize and generalize what mathematical models tell us about the dynamics of speciation.

"Fitness Landscapes and the Origin of Species" presents both an overview of the forty years of previous theoretical research and the author's new results. Sergey Gavrilets uses a unified framework based on the notion of fitness landscapes introduced by Sewall Wright in 1932, generalizing this notion to explore the consequences of the huge dimensionality of fitness landscapes that correspond to biological systems.

In contrast to previous theoretical work, which was based largely on numerical simulations, Gavrilets develops simple mathematical models that allow for analytical investigation and clear interpretation in biological terms. Covering controversial topics, including sympatric speciation and the effects of sexual conflict on speciation, this book builds for the first time a general, quantitative theory for the origin of species.

"This is a ... rich book, full of sober, well-considered insights, and there is a sense of real progress in understanding the variety of situations in which speciation can occur. Any investment in this book is well rewarded."--Brett Calcott, Austral Ecology

Prefacep. xiii
Mathematical symbolsp. xv
Common abbreviationsp. xviii
Introductionp. 1
General structure of the bookp. 7
Some biological ideas and notionsp. 9
Species definition and the nature of reproductive isolationp. 9
Geographic modes of speciationp. 10
Some speciation scenarios and patternsp. 14
Fitness Landscapes
Fitness landscapesp. 21
Working example: one-locus, two-allele model of viability selectionp. 22
Fitness landscape as fitness of gene combinationsp. 25
Fitness landscape as the mean fitness of populationsp. 30
The metaphor of fitness landscapesp. 33
Wright's rugged fitness landscapesp. 34
Fisher's single-peak fitness landscapesp. 36
Kimura's flat fitness landscapesp. 38
Fitness landscapes for mating pairsp. 40
Fitness landscapes for quantitative traitsp. 41
Fitness landscape as fitness of trait combinationsp. 41
Fitness landscape as the mean fitness of populationsp. 42
Fitness landscapes for mating pairsp. 45
General comment on fitness landscapesp. 46
Summaryp. 47
Conclusionsp. 48
Dynamics of allele frequencies in one-locus, multiallele populationp. 49
Hill climbing on a rugged fitness landscapep. 50
Evolution on flat landscapesp. 51
Steps toward speciation on rugged fitness landscapesp. 53
Stochastic transitions between isolated fitness peaksp. 53
Fixation of an underdominant mutationp. 54
Peak shift in a quantitative characterp. 60
Fixation of compensatory mutations in a two-locus haploid populationp. 62
Some consequences of spatial subdivision and density fluctuationsp. 66
Spatial subdivisionp. 66
Stochastic transitions in a growing populationp. 71
Peak shifts by selectionp. 75
Summaryp. 76
Conclusionsp. 77
Diffusion theory: the probability of fixationp. 78
Diffusion theory: the time to fixationp. 79
Diffusion theory: the duration of transitionp. 80
Nearly neutral networks and holey fitness landscapesp. 81
Simple modelsp. 82
Russian roulette model in two dimensionsp. 83
Russian roulette model on hypercubesp. 86
Generalized Russian roulette modelp. 89
Multiplicative fitnessesp. 90
Stabilizing selection on an additive traitp. 91
Models based on the Nk-modelp. 92
Neutral networks in RNA landscapesp. 95
Neutral networks in protein landscapesp. 97
Other evidence for nearly neutral networksp. 99
The metaphor of holey fitness landscapesp. 100
Deterministic evolution on a holey landscapep. 105
Error thresholdp. 105
Genetic canalizationp. 106
Stochastic evolution on a holey landscapep. 108
Random walksp. 108
Dynamics of haploid populationsp. 112
Summaryp. 113
Conclusionsp. 114
The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller Model
Speciation in the BDM modelp. 117
The BDM model of reproductive isolationp. 117
Fitness landscapes in the BDM modelp. 119
The mechanisms of reproductive isolation in the BDM modelp. 121
Population genetics in the BDM modelp. 124
Haploid populationp. 125
Diploid populationp. 128
Dynamics of speciation in the BDM modelp. 130
Allopatric speciationp. 131
Parapatric speciationp. 137
Summaryp. 143
Conclusionsp. 145
Hitting probability and hitting time in discrete-time Markov chainsp. 146
Genetic barrier to gene flowp. 147
Multidimensional generalizations of the BDM modelp. 149
One- and two-locus, multiallele modelsp. 149
Multilocus modelsp. 151
The Walsh modelp. 152
Divergent degeneration of duplicated genesp. 154
Three- and four-locus modelsp. 155
Accumulation of genetic incompatibilitiesp. 158
Allopatric speciationp. 174
Parapatric speciationp. 185
Summaryp. 192
Conclusionsp. 194
Spatial patterns in the BDM modelp. 195
Individual-based models: spread of mutually incompatible neutral genesp. 197
Modelp. 197
Parametersp. 198
Numerical procedurep. 199
Resultsp. 200
Interpretationsp. 205
Deme-based models: spread of mutually incompatible neutral genesp. 207
Modelp. 207
Parameters and dynamic characteristicsp. 210
Resultsp. 211
Interpretationsp. 219
Deme-based models: spread of mutually incompatible advantageous genesp. 221
Comment on adaptive radiationp. 228
Summaryp. 229
Conclusionsp. 230
Speciation Via the Joint Action of Disruptive Natural Selection and Nonrandom Mating
Maintenance of genetic variation under disruptive natural selectionp. 233
Spatially heterogeneous selectionp. 235
The Levene modelp. 235
Two-locus, two-allele haploid version of the Levene modelp. 238
Restricted migration between two nichesp. 240
Spatial gradients in selectionp. 242
Coevolutionary clinesp. 249
Spatially uniform disruptive selectionp. 251
Migration-selection balance: the Karlin-McGregor modelp. 251
Migration-selection balance: the Bazykin modelp. 252
Temporal variation in selectionp. 254
Frequency-dependent selection in a single populationp. 255
Phenomenological approachp. 256
Intraspecific competitionp. 257
Spatially heterogeneous selection and competitionp. 263
Adaptive dynamics approachp. 265
Summaryp. 277
Conclusionsp. 278
Evolution of nonrandom mating and fertilizationp. 279
A general framework for modeling nonrandom mating and fertilizationp. 280
Random mating within mating pools joined preferentiallyp. 282
Preferential mating within mating pools joined randomlyp. 284
Similarity-based nonrandom matingp. 287
Single locusp. 287
Multiple locip. 299
General conclusions on similarity-based nonrandom matingp. 309
Matching-based nonrandom matingp. 309
Two locip. 311
Two polygenic charactersp. 321
One locus, one characterp. 325
General conclusions on matching-based nonrandom matingp. 327
Nonrandom mating controlled by a culturally transmitted traitp. 327
Summaryp. 328
Conclusionsp. 330
Interaction of disruptive selection and nonrandom matingp. 331
Disruptive selection and similarity-based nonrandom matingp. 332
Single locusp. 333
Single quantitative characterp. 352
Sympatric speciation with culturally transmitted mating preferencesp. 356
Disruptive selection and matching-based nonrandom matingp. 359
Two locip. 359
Two polygenic charactersp. 364
"Magic trait" modelsp. 368
Single locusp. 369
Two loci: speciation by sexual conflictp. 370
Single polygenic characterp. 374
Two polygenic characters: speciation by sexual selectionp. 384
Disruptive selection and modifiers of matingp. 387
Summaryp. 396
Conclusionsp. 398
General conclusionsp. 399
The structure of fitness landscapes and speciationp. 399
Allopatric speciationp. 401
Parapatric speciationp. 401
Sympatric speciationp. 403
Some speciation scenarios and patternsp. 406
General rules of evolutionary diversificationp. 412
Why species?p. 414
Some open theoretical questionsp. 416
Final thoughtsp. 417
Referencesp. 419
Indexp. 457
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691119830
ISBN-10: 069111983X
Series: Monographs in Population Biology
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 480
Published: 26th July 2004
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 20.96 x 13.97  x 3.81
Weight (kg): 0.57

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