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Final Covers for Solid Waste Landfils and Abandoned Dumps - David E. Daniel

Final Covers for Solid Waste Landfils and Abandoned Dumps

Hardcover

Published: 1st January 1997
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The number of worldwide solid waste landfills and abandoned dumps is growing steadily in both industrialized and developing nations. The key to successful waste containment is often a final cover for placement over the landfill or dump. This book presents the essential elements for the design of final covers which are environmentally safe and secure. With an overview of regulations in the United States and Germany provided, the authors emphasize performance-based design for site specific conditions. Individual components of candidate cover systems are examined, including surface, protection, drainage, barrier, gas collection, and foundation layers for the entire range of natural soil materials and geosynthetics.

Abstractp. ii
Prefacep. ix
Acknowledgmentsp. xi
Introduction
Purpose of the Bookp. 4
Liner and Cover Regulations in the United States and Germanyp. 7
Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Covers in the United Statesp. 9
Hazardous Waste Landfill Covers in the United Statesp. 10
Covers for Abandoned Dumps and Remediation Projects in the United Statesp. 12
Solid Waste Landfill Covers in Germanyp. 13
Mineral Solid Waste Landfill Covers in Germanyp. 14
Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Covers in Germanyp. 15
Hazardous Waste Landfill Covers in Germanyp. 16
General Comments on Cover Requirements in Germanyp. 16
Summary Comments on Regulationsp. 17
Liquids Management Practicesp. 17
Standard Leachate Withdrawalp. 18
Leachate Recirculationp. 20
Leachate Within Abandoned Dumpsp. 22
General Comments on Cover Systemsp. 22
Surface Layerp. 22
Protection Layerp. 23
Drainage Layerp. 24
Hydraulic/Gas Barrier Layerp. 25
Gas Collection Layerp. 27
Foundation Layerp. 27
General Concernsp. 28
Settlement/Subsidencep. 28
Slope Instabilityp. 29
Inadequate Filtrationp. 31
Improper Gas Managementp. 32
Long-Term Erosionp. 32
Possible Final Use and Aestheticsp. 34
Quality Control and Quality Assurancep. 35
Referencesp. 37
Individual Components of Final Cover Systems
Surface Layerp. 40
Design Considerationsp. 40
Materialsp. 41
Topsoilp. 41
Cobblesp. 46
Asphaltic Concretep. 47
Other Materialsp. 48
Thicknessp. 48
Constructionp. 48
Establishing Vegetationp. 49
Erosion Considerationsp. 50
Vegetation Detailsp. 52
Surface Armorp. 52
Maintenancep. 52
Protection Layerp. 53
General Considerationsp. 53
Materialsp. 54
Thicknessp. 54
Support Growth of Vegetationp. 55
Frost Penetrationp. 55
Storage of Waterp. 55
Accidental Human Intrusionp. 56
Burrowing Animalsp. 57
Root Penetrationp. 58
Desiccation of Underlying Layersp. 59
Radiation Protectionp. 60
Capillary Barriersp. 61
Drainage Layerp. 61
General Considerationsp. 62
Materialsp. 62
Granular Materialsp. 62
Geosynthetic Materialsp. 63
Design Detailsp. 63
Granular Materialsp. 64
Geosynthetic Materialsp. 66
Geotextile Filtersp. 68
Hydraulic/Gas Barrier Layerp. 70
Geomembranesp. 70
Permeation Through Geomembranesp. 71
Out-of-Plane Subsidence Behaviorp. 71
Interface Friction Using Textured Geomembranesp. 72
Constructabilityp. 73
Cost and Availabilityp. 73
Geosynthetic Clay Linersp. 73
Compacted Clay Linersp. 77
Materialsp. 78
Compaction Requirementsp. 78
Constructionp. 79
Processingp. 79
Surface Preparationp. 79
Placementp. 80
Compactionp. 80
Protectionp. 81
Quality Assurancep. 81
Test Padsp. 81
Shear Strengthp. 81
Composite Linersp. 82
Geomembrane Componentp. 82
Geosynthetic Clay Liner Componentp. 84
Compacted Clay Liner Componentp. 85
Intimate Contact Concernp. 86
Gas Collection Layerp. 87
Designp. 88
Constructionp. 88
Foundation Layerp. 90
Referencesp. 91
Final Cover System Cross Sections
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Coversp. 95
Hazardous Waste Coversp. 102
Abandoned Dumps and Waste Remediation Coversp. 105
Referencesp. 111
Water Balance Analysis
Introductionp. 113
Water Routing Within Coversp. 113
Principles of Water Balance Analysisp. 116
Retention of Precipitation by Leaves of Plantsp. 116
Storage of Snow at the Surfacep. 116
Runoffp. 117
Storage of Water in Soilp. 118
Evapotranspirationp. 120
Lateral Drainagep. 120
Hydraulic Barriersp. 121
Geomembranesp. 121
Clay Linersp. 122
Composite Linersp. 123
Water Balance Analysis by Handp. 123
Spread Sheetp. 124
Row A: Average Monthly Temperaturep. 124
Row B: Monthly Heat Index (H[subscript m])p. 124
Row C: Unadjusted Daily Potential Evapotranspiration (UPET)p. 124
Row D: Monthly Duration of Sunlight (N)p. 126
Row E: Potential Evapotranspiration (PET)p. 126
Row F: Precipitation (P)p. 126
Row G: Runoff Coefficient (C)p. 128
Row H: Runoff (R)p. 128
Row I: Infiltration (IN)p. 128
Row J: Infiltration Minus Potential Evapotranspiration (IN--PET)p. 130
Row K: Accumulated Water Loss (WL)p. 130
Row L: Water Stored in Root Zone (WS)p. 131
Row M: Change in Water Storage (CWS)p. 136
Row N: Actual Evapotranspiration (AET)p. 136
Row O: Percolation (PERC)p. 136
Row P: Check of Calculations (CK)p. 137
Row Q: Percolation Rate (FLUX)p. 137
Examplep. 137
Analysis for Hourly Averagesp. 139
Lateral Drainagep. 141
Leakage Through Hydraulic Barriersp. 142
Water Balance by Computer Analysisp. 144
Design Profilep. 144
Vertical Percolation Layerp. 145
Lateral Drainage Layerp. 148
Low-Permeability Soil Barrier Layerp. 149
Geomembrane Layerp. 150
Default Propertiesp. 150
Method of Solutionp. 150
Design Percolation Ratep. 155
Referencesp. 156
Slope Stability of Final Cover Systems
Overviewp. 158
Geotechnical Principles and Issuesp. 159
Limit Equilibrium Conceptsp. 160
Interface Shear Testingp. 162
Various Situations Encounteredp. 165
Cover Soil Slope Stability Problemsp. 166
Slopes with Uniformly Thick Cover Soilsp. 166
Incorporation of Equipment Loadsp. 170
Slopes with Tapered Thickness Cover Soilsp. 179
Veneer Reinforcement of Cover Soil Slopesp. 183
Consideration of Seepage Forcesp. 187
Consideration of Seismic Forcesp. 193
Summaryp. 199
Referencesp. 202
Related Designs and Emerging Concepts
General Issuesp. 204
Other Designsp. 205
Capillary Barrier Conceptp. 205
Leachate Recyclingp. 207
Mine Residuals vis-a-vis Land Reclamationp. 209
Emerging Materialsp. 210
Natural Erosion Control Materialsp. 210
Geosynthetic Erosion Control Materialsp. 210
Temporary Erosion and Revegetation Materialsp. 212
Permanent Erosion and Revegetation Materials: Soft Armor-Relatedp. 213
Permanent Erosion and Revegetation Materials: Hard Armor-Relatedp. 215
Geofoamp. 215
Shredded Tiresp. 216
Spray-On Elastomeric Linersp. 216
Paper Mill Sludge Linersp. 218
Emerging Concepts and/or Systemsp. 218
Timing of Construction of Final Cover for MSW Landfillsp. 219
Field Performance of Cover Systemsp. 219
Cover Failuresp. 219
Field Study in Hamburg, Germanyp. 220
Field Study in Beltsville, Marylandp. 221
Field Study in East Wenatchee, Washingtonp. 222
Field Study in Richland, Washingtonp. 222
Field Study in Idaho Falls, Idahop. 223
Field Study in Albuquerque, New Mexicop. 223
Assessment of the Technologyp. 224
Field Monitoringp. 227
Referencesp. 227
Other Considerations and Summary
Current Concepts Regarding Quality, e.g., ISO 9000p. 231
Quality Controlp. 233
Quality Assurancep. 234
Lifetimep. 235
Natural Soil Materialsp. 236
Compacted Clay Liner Soilsp. 236
Sand/Gravel Drainage Soilsp. 237
Sand Filtration Soilsp. 238
Geosyntheticsp. 239
Depletion of Antioxidantsp. 240
Induction Timep. 241
Polymer Degradationp. 242
Anticipated Lifetimep. 244
Warrantsp. 244
Post-Closure Issuesp. 246
Summaryp. 247
Final Commentsp. 247
Research Needsp. 248
Referencesp. 250
Indexp. 253
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780784402610
ISBN-10: 0784402612
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 350
Published: 1st January 1997
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 1.6
Weight (kg): 0.56
Edition Type: New edition