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Field Methods for Geologists and Hydrogeologists - Fakhry A. Assaad

Field Methods for Geologists and Hydrogeologists

By: Fakhry A. Assaad (Editor), Philip E. Lamoreaux (Editor), Travis H. Hughes (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 1st February 2004
ISBN: 9783540408826
Number Of Pages: 377

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From the reviews:

"...is a "must" for serious field novices, and for seasoned middle-career and senior practitioners in hydrogeology, mainly those people who answer a calling to offer honest and accurate hydrogeological approximations and findings.

Any engineering geologist or groundwater geologist who claims capability as a "Hydrogeologist" should own this book and submit it to highlighting and page tabbing. Of course, the same goes for those who practice in karst terranes, as author LaMoreaux is one of the pioneers in this field, worldwide..." (Allen W. Hatheway)

From the reviews:

The authors describe project performance, methods for field study of rocks, soils, and outcrops and how to evaluate impacts of air pollution and water resources systems. Furthermore, they develop guidelines for graphic and text presentation of results of studies and describe superficial rock characteristics and subsurface geological mapping techniques. Field Methods for Geologists and Hydrologists covers hydrogeologic methods, groundwater monitoring systems, contamination and waste management and discusses groundwater flow in fractured and granular aquifers, including a special reference to karstic aquifers. In addition, international waste management rules and regulations are enumerated. Making this a comprehensive resource, a glossary is provided of geological and hydrogeological terms, as well as a standard terminology for soils, rocks, and contained fluids.

"...is a "must" for serious field novices, and for seasoned middle-career and senior practitioners in hydrogeology, mainly those people who answer a calling to offer honest and accurate hydrogeological approximations and findings.

Any engineering geologist or groundwater geologist who claims capability as a "Hydrogeologist" should own this book and submit it to highlighting and page tabbing. Of course, the same goes for those who practice in karst terranes, as author LaMoreaux is one of the pioneers in this field, worldwide..." (Allen W. Hatheway)

"The authors describe project performance, methods for field study of rocks, soils, and outcrops and evaluate impacts of air pollution and water resources systems. ... This book is designed for scientists and engineers who carry out geological and hydrogeological projects and reports. It will be very helpful for graduate and undergraduate students of geological and environmental institutes as well as for professional geologists, hydrogeologists and project managers." (Fakhry A. Assaad, Environmental Geology, February, 2005)

Introductionp. 1
Historical Aspectp. 1
Concept of Environmental Movementp. 3
Environmental Aspects of Karst Terrainsp. 4
Referencesp. 4
Part I Surface Geological and Geophysical Field Studiesp. 5
Geology of Indurated Rocks, Unconsolidated Sedimentary Deposits and Karst Terrainsp. 7
Introductionp. 7
Rock Composition and Rock Typesp. 7
Rock Compositionp. 7
Rock Typesp. 8
Soils and Unconsolidated Depositsp. 15
Soilsp. 15
Unconsolidated Depositsp. 18
Karst Terrainsp. 26
Definitionp. 26
Karst and Karstificationp. 27
Karst and Speleogenetic Processesp. 27
How Important is Karst to Man's Environment?p. 27
Karst Featuresp. 28
Siting Landfills in Karst Terrainsp. 28
Referencesp. 29
Selected Referencesp. 29
Appearance of Different Sizes of Sand and Siltp. 30
Topographic and Surface Geologic Mapsp. 31
Topographic Mapsp. 31
Longitude and Latitudep. 31
Land Office Grid Systemp. 32
Surface Geological Mappingp. 32
Scopep. 32
Geologic Maps in the USAp. 33
Geologic Maps in Canadap. 33
Digital Geological Mapsp. 34
Aerial Photographic Mapsp. 35
Geological Surveying Methodsp. 37
Brunton Compassp. 37
Map-Scale Structures and Map Interpretationp. 39
Finding the Orientation of Planesp. 44
Referencesp. 45
Selected Referencesp. 46
Topographic Map Symbolsp. 46
Symbols for Geologic Mapsp. 48
Surface Geophysical Exploration Methodsp. 51
Introductionp. 51
Magnetic Surveyp. 51
Gravimetric Surveyp. 51
Microgravity and Cavity Detectionp. 52
Seismic Exploration Surveyp. 53
Definition and Discussionp. 53
Seismic Refraction/Reflection Methodsp. 55
Seismic Terms and Phenomenap. 56
Ground Penetrating Radar Methodsp. 57
Definition and Basic Principlesp. 57
Methodologyp. 58
GPR Applicationp. 59
Remote Sensing and Satellite-Based Imagesp. 60
Generalp. 60
Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS)p. 61
Preliminary Evaluation of Remote Sensing/Alabama Highwaysp. 62
Satellite Hydrologyp. 63
Applications in the Field of Hydrogeologyp. 64
Geophysical Investigations in Karst Areasp. 69
Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT)p. 70
Earth Resistivity Tomography Used for Investigating Karst Hazardsp. 70
Natural Potential Method (NP)p. 72
Referencesp. 75
Selected Referencesp. 76
Part II Subsurface Geological and Geophysical Methodsp. 77
Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks-Subsurface Geological Mapping and Computer Software Data Management Systemsp. 79
Introductionp. 79
Test Drilling Contractp. 79
Geologic Samples and Driller's Logsp. 79
Rock Characteristicsp. 80
The Megafeaturesp. 80
Color Patternsp. 80
Rock Texture of Clastic Sedimentsp. 81
Rock Structurep. 84
Rock Lusterp. 84
Mineral Accessoriesp. 84
Preparation of Well Logsp. 84
Types of Well Logsp. 84
Downhole Methodsp. 87
Composite Well Logsp. 88
Stratigraphy and Structural Geologyp. 88
Stratigraphyp. 88
Structural Geologyp. 88
Subsurface Sections and Geological Mapsp. 90
Isopach Mapsp. 90
Facies Mapsp. 90
Graphic Techniques and Representationp. 90
Scopep. 90
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)p. 91
Computer Software Data Management Systemsp. 92
Duties and Responsibilities of the Subsurface Geologistp. 97
correlation of Surface to Subsurface Stratigraphic Unitsp. 98
Electrical Loggingp. 98
Problem/Solutions in Deep Drilling Operationsp. 98
Subsurface Datap. 98
Unconformitiesp. 100
Referencesp. 100
Selected Referencesp. 101
Lithologic Symbols for Cross and Columnar Sectionsp. 102
Drilling and Testing: Soil Samplers, Drilling Techniques, and Equipmentp. 103
Introductionp. 103
Soil Sampling and Equipmentp. 104
Split-Barrel Samplersp. 104
Thin-Wall or "Shelby Tube" Samplersp. 105
Specialized Soil Samplersp. 106
Core Samplersp. 109
Drilling Methods and Equipment for Installation of Test Wellsp. 110
Hand Augersp. 110
Driven Wellsp. 111
Jet Percussionp. 113
Solid-Flight Augersp. 115
Hollow-Stem Augersp. 115
Mud-Rotary Drillingp. 119
Air-Rotary Drillingp. 125
Air Rotary With Casing Driverp. 126
Dual-Wall Reverse Circulationp. 127
Cable Tool Drilling Method (Cable Tool Percussion)p. 128
Other Drilling Methodsp. 130
Drilling Rigs and Drilling Toolsp. 131
Design and Completion of Wellsp. 131
Design Planning of Wellsp. 131
Well Completionp. 133
Procedures and Problems in Industrial Drillingp. 135
Scopep. 136
Drilling Fluid Systemsp. 136
Straight Hole Techniquesp. 136
Setting Casingp. 137
Cementingp. 137
Fishing Operationsp. 137
Geoprobe Systemsp. 137
Field Notes, Safety and Precautionsp. 137
Check List for Drilling and Well Development Workp. 137
Electrocution on the Drilling Rigp. 139
Safety on the Rig "Hard Hats and Safety Shoes"p. 139
Checklist for a Drilling Sitep. 139
Referencesp. 140
Selected Referencesp. 140
Drilling Formsp. 141
Guide to U.S. Water Well Drilling Rigsp. 145
Well Inventory Formsp. 149
Geophysical Well Logging Methods and Interpretationsp. 151
Geophysical Well Loggingp. 151
Basics of Well Log Interpretationsp. 151
Basic Conceptsp. 151
Borehole Parametersp. 152
Formation Temperature (Tf)p. 153
Specific Log Typesp. 153
Log Interpretation and Applicationsp. 162
Referencesp. 168
Electric Log Interpretationsp. 169
Quantitative Interpretation of
Specific Geophysical Well Logsp. 171
Ground-Water Hydrology, Ground-Water Contamination, and Waste Managementp. 175
Ground-Water Hydrology, Hydrogeologic Methods and Hydrogeologic Data Acquisitionp. 177
Introductionp. 177
Ground-Water Hydrologyp. 179
Hydraulic Properties of Granular Aquifersp. 179
Aquifer Testingp. 184
Hydraulic Testing and Characteristics of Aquifersp. 187
Pumping Test Planp. 189
Well and Pump Renovationp. 192
Ground-Water Modelsp. 192
Hydrogeologic Methods and Equipmentp. 193
Field Investigationp. 193
Ground-Water Measurementsp. 193
Surface Hydrogeological Phenomena, and Discussion of Surface Components of the Hydrological Cyclep. 196
Acquisition of Hydrogeologic Datap. 202
Site Assessmentsp. 202
Surface-Water Hydrologyp. 202
Preliminary Conceptual Model of a Sitep. 203
Basic Data Checklistp. 203
Greenfield Sitingp. 206
Karst Aquifers and Cave Patternsp. 206
Hydrological Mapping Techniquesp. 208
Classification of Hydrological Mapsp. 208
Referencesp. 210
Selected Referencesp. 211
Selected Photos of Field Instrumentsp. 212
A Site or Facility Characterization
Using Electromagnetic Radiography (EMR)p. 213
Pumping Test Plan-Attachments: 8.C.1, 8.C.2, 8.C.3p. 219
Ground-Water Sampling, Analytical Procedures, and Decontamination of Equipmentp. 224
Ground-Water Monitoring Wells, Contamination, and Waste Managementp. 233
Ground-Water Flow in Granular and Fractured Rocksp. 233
Scopep. 233
Determination of the Direction and Rates of Ground-Water Flow in Granular Aquifersp. 233
State-of-the-Art For Modeling Two-Phase Flow in Fractured Rocksp. 233
Transport by Concentration Gradients/Definitionsp. 234
Development of Ground-Water Monitoring Wellsp. 234
Geologic and Hydrogeologic Conditions of a Sitep. 234
Development of Ground-Water Monitoring Wells in Granular Aquifers (ASTM D-5521-94)p. 235
Development of Ground-Water Monitoring Wells in Karst and Fractured Rock Aquifers (ASTM D-5717-95)p. 235
Record-Keeping (U.S. EPA/4-89)p. 235
Types of Waste Disposal Facilities and Waste Characteristicsp. 237
Types of Waste-Disposal Facilities (U.S. EPA 600/4-89)p. 237
Waste Characteristicsp. 237
Seepage of Water at the Edges of Waste Disposal Sitesp. 240
Sources of Pollution and Ground-Water Contaminationp. 240
Air Pollution and Its Effects on Surface Water Resourcesp. 240
Sources of Pollution in Surface Waterp. 242
Sources of Pollution to Aquifer Systemsp. 242
Pollution to Karstic Aquifersp. 244
Protection of Water in Karst Against Pollutionp. 246
Dye Tracing Techniquesp. 247
Scopep. 247
Highlights in Karst Historyp. 247
Dye Tracersp. 247
Isotopic Tracers in Karst Aquifersp. 249
Quantitative Analysis of Tracer Testsp. 250
Evaluation of Dynamic Dispersion in Karst Aquifersp. 252
Waste Management, Rules and Regulationsp. 253
Discussionp. 253
Identification of Wastes and Determination of Hazardsp. 254
EPA Rules and Regulationsp. 255
Federal Laws in the USA and Regulatory Standardsp. 255
An Editorial Issue on USA Regulationsp. 257
Referencesp. 257
Selected Referencesp. 258
A Study of Stream Water Runoffp. 259
Part IV Case Studiesp. 261
A New Approach on the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer of the Western Desert of Egyptp. 263
Introductionp. 263
Subsurface Geologyp. 263
Structural Geologyp. 265
Petrophysical and Petrographical Studiesp. 266
The Ground-Water Reservoirp. 269
The Analogue Rc-Integrator Modelp. 271
The Digital Modelp. 273
The River Nile of Egyptp. 274
Evolution of the River Nilep. 274
The River Nile Basinp. 276
Environmental Concernsp. 277
Local Activitiesp. 278
Conclusionsp. 278
Referencesp. 278
Photos of the Western Desert of Egyptp. 279
Sulfate and Chloride Karstification and Its Economical Significancep. 281
Introductionp. 281
Fundamentals of Karstificationp. 282
Geomechanical Modelsp. 282
Conclusionp. 285
Referencesp. 285
Occurence of DNAPL near an Interceptor Well-Pump and Test Treatment for Remediationp. 287
Introductionp. 287
Backgroundp. 287
Methodologyp. 288
Hydrogeology of the Alluvial Aquiferp. 288
Discussion and Conceptual Modelp. 290
Executive Summaryp. 292
Conclusionsp. 293
Referencesp. 293
Part V Technical Applications in the Field and Project Performancep. 295
Laboratory Tests For Soilsp. 297
Introductionp. 297
Particle Size Analysis of Soilsp. 298
Scopep. 298
Wet Preparation of Soil Samples (ASTM D-2217)p. 298
Dry Preparation of Soil Samples (ASTM D-421)p. 299
Test Procedure of Particle Size Analysis (ASTM D-422)p. 299
Specific Gravity Method (D-854)p. 301
Atterberg Limitsp. 305
Liquid Limit Test (ASTM D-4318-84)p. 305
Plastic Limit Test (ASTM D-4318-84)p. 306
The Shrinkage Limit Test (ASTM D-427)p. 306
Void Ratiop. 308
Permeability of Granular Soils under Constant Head (ASTM D-2434)p. 309
Referencesp. 313
Project Performancep. 315
Introductionp. 315
Project Proposalp. 315
Project Planningp. 316
Project and Report Quality Assurancep. 318
Types of Projectsp. 318
Summary of Project Planningp. 319
Project Managementp. 319
Management by Objectivesp. 319
Position Descriptions and Performance Standardsp. 320
Project Controlsp. 320
Monitoring Progressp. 323
Project Completionp. 323
Roles and Responsibilitiesp. 325
Summary of Project Managementp. 325
AIPG Bylaws and Code of Ethicsp. 326
Project\Site Safety Precautionsp. 326
Search for Referencesp. 327
Referencesp. 328
Selected Referencesp. 328
Sample Forms (Required for a Project)p. 329
Project-Work Elements and Management Graphsp. 334
Professional Services Agreementp. 340
Indexp. 357
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540408826
ISBN-10: 3540408827
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 377
Published: 1st February 2004
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 27.6 x 20.3  x 2.92
Weight (kg): 1.4