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Ferroelectric Random Access Memories : Fundamentals and Applications - Hiroshi Ishiwara

Ferroelectric Random Access Memories

Fundamentals and Applications

By: Hiroshi Ishiwara (Editor), Masanori Okuyama (Editor), Yoshihiro Arimoto (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 1st May 2004
ISBN: 9783540407188
Number Of Pages: 291

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In fabrication of FeRAMs, various academic and technological backgrounds are necessary, which include ferroelectric materials, thin film formation, device physics, circuit design, and so on. This book covers from fundamentals to applications of ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAMs). The book consists of 5 parts: (1) ferroelectric thin films, (2) deposition and characterization methods, (3) fabrication process and circuit design, (4) advanced-type memories, and (5) applications and future prospects; each part is further divided into several chapters. Because of the wide range of topics discussed, each chapter in this book was written by one of the best authors knowing the specific topic very well. Thus, this is a good introductory book on FeRAM for graduate students and newcomers to this field; it also helps specialists to understand FeRAMs more deeply.

Ferroelectric Thin Films
Overviewp. 3
Introductionp. 3
Materials for FeRAMsp. 3
Conditions Desired for FeRAMsp. 3
Typical Materialsp. 5
Doping Effectsp. 5
Grain Sizesp. 6
Size Effects in Ferroelectric Capacitorsp. 7
Lateral Areap. 7
Thickness Dependencep. 7
Electrodesp. 8
Dynamic Characteristicsp. 10
Domain Structurep. 10
Polarization Switching Characteristicsp. 11
Frequency Dependencep. 13
Retentionp. 14
Referencesp. 15
Novel Si-Substituted Ferroelectric Filmsp. 17
Introductionp. 17
The Crystallization Processp. 18
The Properties of Bi2SiO5-Added Bi4Ti3O12 Filmsp. 20
The Formation of Ultra-Thin Filmsp. 24
Annealing Effects in High-Pressure Oxygenp. 25
Summaryp. 28
Referencesp. 29
Static and Dynamic Properties of Domainsp. 31
Introductionp. 31
Domain Configurationp. 32
Reversible and Irreversible Polarization Contributionsp. 35
Ferroelectric Switchingp. 37
Long-Term Effectsp. 41
Fatiguep. 41
Retention Lossp. 42
Imprintp. 42
Referencesp. 44
Nanoscale Phenomena in Ferroelectric Thin Filmsp. 47
Introductionp. 47
Experimental Detailsp. 48
Nanoscale Domain Imaging in Ferroelectric Thin Filmsp. 50
Nanoscale Piezoelectric and Hysteresis Behaviorp. 61
Summaryp. 66
Referencesp. 67
Deposition and Characterization Methods
The Sputtering Techniquep. 71
Introductionp. 71
A Sputtering System for Mass Productionp. 72
The Optimization of Sputtering Conditionsp. 75
The Ferroelectric Characteristics of Sputtered PZT Capacitorsp. 79
Sputtering of SBT Films and Hydrogen Barrier Layersp. 80
Future Development Tasksp. 82
Referencesp. 82
A Chemical Approach Using Liquid Sources Tailored to Bi-Based Layer-Structured Perovskite Thin Filmsp. 85
Introductionp. 85
SrBi2(Ta, Nb)2O9 and CaBi2Ta2O9 Thin Films Deposited via Triple Alkoxides of Sr-Bi-Ta/Nb and Ca-Bi-Tap. 86
CaBi3Ti3O12-x, CaBi4Ti4O15, and Ca2Bi4Ti5O18 Thin Films Deposited via Mixtures of Ca-Bi and Bi-Ti Double Alkoxidesp. 90
Referencesp. 93
Recent Development in the Preparation of Ferroelectric Thin Films by MOCVDp. 95
Introductionp. 95
Low-Temperature Depositionp. 96
SBT Filmsp. 96
PZT Filmsp. 97
Novel Materials Researchp. 99
Solid Solution of SrBi2(Ta0.7Nb0.3)2O9-Bi3TaTiO9 [(1 - x)SBT-xBTT]p. 99
(Bi,Ln)4(Ti,V)3O12p. 100
Summaryp. 101
Referencesp. 102
Materials Integration Strategiesp. 105
Introductionp. 105
An Experimental Method for the Synthesis and Characterization of Ferroelectric Capacitor Layersp. 108
The Magnetron-Based Synthesis and Characterization of Ti-Al Layers and LSCO/Ti-Al Heterostructuresp. 109
Studies of Ti-Al and LSCO Film Growth and Oxidation Processesp. 113
Microstructure-Deposition Environment Relationships for Ti-Al Layersp. 114
Studies of Ti-Al/LSCO Heterostructured Layer Growth and Oxidation Processes via Complementary in situ Analytical Techniquesp. 114
Electrical Characterization of Ferroelectric Capacitors with a Ti-Al Diffusion Barrier/Electrode Layerp. 118
Summaryp. 120
Referencesp. 121
Characterization by Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopyp. 123
Introductionp. 123
ThePrinciplesandTheoryofSNDMp. 124
Nonlinear Dielectric Imaging with Sub-Nanometer Resolutionp. 124
A Comparison between SNDM Imaging and Piezo-Response Imagingp. 128
Higher-Order Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopyp. 129
The Theory of Higher-Order Nonlinear DielectricMicroscopyp. 129
Experimental Details of Higher-Order NonlinearDielectricMicroscopyp. 130
Three-Dimensional Measurement Techniquesp. 133
The Principle and the Measurement Systemp. 133
Experimental Resultsp. 134
Referencesp. 135
The Fabrication Process and Circuit Design
The Current Status of FeRAMp. 139
Introductionp. 139
The High-Density FeRAM Roadmapp. 141
The Current Status of PZT Capacitor Materialsp. 145
Summaryp. 147
Referencesp. 148
Operation Principle and Circuit Design Issuesp. 149
Introductionp. 149
The Ferroelectric Capacitorp. 151
TheHysteresisLoopCharacteristicp. 153
Pulse-BasedCharacteristicsp. 154
The Ferroelectric Memory Cell: Read and Write Operationsp. 155
Sensing Schemesp. 158
Ferroelectric Memory Architecturesp. 159
The Wordline-Parallel Plateline (WL//PL)p. 159
The Bitline-Parallel Plateline (BL//PL)p. 160
The Segmented Plateline (Segmented PL)p. 161
Summaryp. 161
Referencesp. 162
High-Density Integrationp. 165
Introductionp. 165
Key Technologies for High-Density FeRAM with a Small Cell Size Factorp. 168
Reliable Ferroelectric Capacitor Technologyp. 168
Vertical Shape Capacitor Etching Technology with Low Etching Damagep. 169
Plug Technologyp. 170
Encapsulated Hydrogen Barrier Technologyp. 171
Novel Integration Technologyp. 172
Sub-10 F2 Future FeRAM Technologyp. 173
Summaryp. 175
Referencesp. 175
Testing and Reliabilityp. 177
LeakageCurrentp. 177
Electrical Breakdownp. 178
Hysteresis Measurementp. 181
Ferroelectric Fatiguep. 183
Pulse Polarization Measurementp. 184
Retentionp. 185
Imprintp. 188
Referencesp. 192
Advanced-Type Memories
Chain FeRAMsp. 197
Introductionp. 197
Conventional FeRAMp. 198
The Concept of Chain FeRAMp. 199
TheBasicStructurep. 199
Two Basic Operationsp. 200
The High-Speed Techniquep. 202
High-Density Techniquesp. 204
The Advantage of Chain Architecturep. 204
The One-Pitch-Shift Cellp. 204
The Hierarchical Wordline Scheme without Extra Metalp. 205
The Small-Area Dummy Cell Schemep. 206
Chip Size Comparisonp. 208
Low-Voltage Designp. 210
Summaryp. 212
Referencesp. 212
Capacitor-on-Metal/Via-Stacked-Plug (CMVP) Memory Cell Technologies and Application to a Nonvolatile SRAMp. 215
Introductionp. 215
The CMVP Memory Cellp. 216
The cell Structure and Processp. 216
The Electrical Properties of the PZT Capacitorp. 220
Plug-Contact Resistancep. 221
The Cell-Array Monitorp. 222
A Nonvolatile SRAM with Backup Ferroelectric Capacitors (NV-SRAM)p. 222
Conventional Shadow RAMs Using Ferroelectric Capacitorsp. 223
TheNV-SRAMCellp. 225
The Cell Structurep. 225
The READ Operationp. 225
The WRITE Operationp. 225
The STORE Operationp. 226
The RECALL Operationp. 226
The Cell Layoutp. 227
Other Advantagesp. 228
Chip Fabrication and Experimentsp. 229
Summaryp. 231
Referencesp. 231
The FET-Type FeRAMp. 233
Introductionp. 233
Novel Applications of Ferroelectric-Gate FETsp. 234
The Single-Transistor-Cell-Type Digital Memoryp. 234
Reconfigurable LSIsp. 236
An Analog Memory for Storing Synaptic Weight in a Neural Networkp. 236
The Basic Operation of Ferroelectric-Gate FETsp. 238
Generation of the Depolarization Fieldp. 238
Improvement of the Data Retention Characteristicsp. 238
A Comparison of the MFIS and MFMIS Structuresp. 240
Recent Experimental Resultsp. 241
The Relation between the Buffer Layer Thickness and the Area Ratiop. 241
Control of the Crystal Orientationp. 243
Other Important Buffer Layers and Ferroelectric Films245
The ITp. 2C Type Ferr
The Cell Structure and Basic Operationp. 246
Experimental Resultsp. 247
High-Density Integrationp. 250
Referencesp. 250
Applications and Future Prospects
Ferroelectric Technologies for Portable Equipmentp. 255
Introductionp. 255
Process Technologies for Low-Voltage Operationp. 256
Experimental and Characterizationp. 256
Experimental Resultsp. 257
Nonvolatile Logicp. 261
The Ferroelectric Nonvolatile Latchp. 261
Test ChipMeasurementp. 263
Scaling Issuesp. 265
Other Nonvolatile Latch Circuitsp. 265
Applications Using the Nonvolatile Latchp. 266
A Novel Functional Devicep. 267
Summaryp. 269
Referencesp. 269
The Application of FeRAM to Future Information Technology Worldp. 271
Introduction-A Prospect for the Future Information Technology Worldp. 271
Smart Card Market/SystemRequirementsp. 273
Nonvolatile Memory Characteristicsp. 274
Contactless Cardsp. 275
Code-Reprogrammable Multi-Application Cardsp. 278
Future Trendsp. 282
Referencesp. 282
Indexp. 283
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540407188
ISBN-10: 3540407189
Series: Topics in Applied Physics
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 291
Published: 1st May 2004
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 2.16
Weight (kg): 0.56

Earn 791 Qantas Points
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