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Failure-Free Integrated Circuit Packages : Systematic Elimination of Failures - Charles Cohn

Failure-Free Integrated Circuit Packages

Systematic Elimination of Failures

Hardcover

Published: 1st May 2004
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Finding and identifying integrated circuit failures is greatly dependent on the analyst's understanding of the operation of the given device. This book is a reference for those involved in reliability and failure mode analysis (FMA) of IC devices, providing graphic illustration of real life examples of the many different failure modes found in IC package technologies. For each failure mode, the physics behind the failure mechanism is presented together with the recommended corrective actions to prevent reoccurrence. This book allows the quick identification of any given failure found in an IC device by comparing it to the many documented.

Failure-Free Integrated Circuit Packages is a new book in Charles Harper's Electronic Packaging and Interconnection Series. The subtitle explains further what this book is focusing on, namely the systematic elimination of failures through reliability engineering, failure analysis, and material improvements. The publication makes ample us of illustrations and has the depth and breadth to become a useful quality guide for manufacturers and users of integrated circuit packages. The co-editors Charles Cohn (Agere Systems) and Charles Harper (Technology Seminars, Inc.) have assembled a knowledgeable group of authors, all employees of Agere Systems, many of them bringing a wealth of insight based on their experience with AT&T and Lucent Technologies, the grandparents and parents of Agere Systems. While some might be critical of this book in that it reflects the practices of only one company, the fact is that the book comes from the organization that literately "wrote the books" on quality and reliability that established the high standards in the electronic industry that we have today. The authors of the chapters in this edited book have in-depth, long experience in their individual subjects creating an excellent reference book. Reliability of advanced IC packages is a hot topic more so than ever. The use of brittle low Dk dielectric in the redistribution layers of the IC makes these chips more prone to cracking than ICs with all SiO2 dielectric layers. Better CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match of all package layers to the low CTE of the IC becomes important, as does the use of buffer or compliant layers. The very fine pitch and tight via spacing on build-up dielectric microvia layers makes these packages more susceptible to CAF (conductive anodic filament) formation. Furthermore, no-lead solders require higher reflow temperatures and thermal management has become critical as thermal densities of ICs approach 100 W/cm2. The book is structured into eight chapters: an introduction and overview, fundamentals of IC package technologies, reliability, physics and chemistry of failures in packaged devices, strategies for locating failures, failure analysis techniques, failure modes common in organic IC packages, and emerging assembly materials for IC packaging. The chapters on strategies for locating failures, failure analysis techniques, and examples of failure modes common in organic IC packages make up the bulk of the book. The Strategies for Locating Failures chapter contains three useful case studies that employ finite element modeling and design of experiments to probe root causes of failures. The Melissa E. Grupen-Shemansky's Introduction provides a good overview and "roadmap" to the chapters in the book. It provides important background for the reader to understand the changes in the industry structure and the issues in insuring a high level of quality and reliability in what has become a complex supply chain. Charles Cohn's chapter on the "Fundamentals of IC Package Technologies" is well done and, while there are some minor historical inaccuracies, provides excellent background on mature as well as emerging technologies useful to both the novice and those experienced in the field. Charles does not assume that the reader is familiar with the alphabet soup of package names, and he carefully explains acronyms when they first appear. The author has subdivided the technologies into four generic types comparing attributes and tradeoffs, physical properties and rankings. ... the chapter is a very good overall summary of packaging technology. Jason P. Goodelle's and John W. Osenbach's chapter on Emerging Assembly Materials for IC Packaging give useful insight in the relationship between chemical structures and chemical and mechanical properties of materials as they impact package reliability. ... The failure analysis chapters are profusely illustrated with charts, graphs and photographs for easy understanding of defects and failure modes. A very effective case study approach is used to lead one through the various steps from problem recognition to fault location to cause and solution. Guideline charts and protocols or strategies for analysis are detailed. The examples of test vehicles for reliability testing and case study examples are most useful for they address issues with large I/O new and advanced package types. ... This book is one that should be a primary reference for anyone involved in IC packaging, Reliability or Quality engineering. CircuiTree Magazine 20050101 Integrated circuit packages are unquestionably the heart of modern electronic assemblies. With the ever-increasing functional density and complexity of these advanced electronic packages, the need to find, identify, and correct potential failures before they occur becomes more and more critical. And the multiple locations, even internationally, required for the complete cycle of design, manufacture, and use of these packages often further complicate the problems of achieving failure-free integrated circuit assemblies. Hence, since integrated circuit packages are so widely used, in their various forms, this just-released new book will be invaluable for the book shelves of most readers of this review. Entirely written by the staff of experienced specialists at Agere Systems (formerly Lucent and AT&T), this book is loaded with practical, real world, illustrations and examples. It could, in fact, well serve as an in-plant guidebook for quality control, failure analysis, and accept-reject criterion. The book is divided into eight well-organized and clearly presented chapters, including descriptions of the various IC packaging technologies, understanding of all of the device reliability factors, physics and chemistry of failures in packaged devices, strategies for locating failures, all of the many failure analysis techniques, clear presentations of all of the many common failure modes, a wide range of examples and case histories, and excellent discussions of the new IC packaging materials, including lead-free solders. This book should be invaluable for most book shelves, and also as an in-plant guidebook for quality and reliability operations. IMAPS (International Microelectronics and Packaging Society) Electronic Bulletin 20041109 ...easy to tell that this is one of the most useful books in the field of IC packaging reliability to come along in some time...If the IDMs and packaging foundries would pass this book out to new engineering hires, it might prevent some of those arduous, litigation-infested dramas that occur as customer and buyer try to plant the blame on each other for packaged ICs that fail in the field, seemingly without reason. ...there is a lot of solid meat-and-potatoes content and very little puffery...topics are fairly all-encompassing and include by chapter title, "Fundamentals of IC Package Technolgoy," "Device Reliability" and "Physics and Chemistry of Failures in Packaged Devices." Chapter 5, "Strategies for Locating Failures" by itself would be worth the modest price of admission. Chip Scale Review 20040901

Forewordp. vii
Prefacep. xi
About the Contributorsp. xiii
Introductionp. 1
Overviewp. 1
More about the IC Packagep. 5
Multiple Technologies/Multiple Failure Mechanismsp. 8
Referencesp. 16
Fundamentals of IC Package Technologiesp. 17
The IC Packagep. 17
Package Familiesp. 19
Through-Hole Mounted Packagesp. 20
Surface Mounted Packagesp. 23
Package Technologiesp. 26
Molded Plastic Technologyp. 27
Pressed Ceramic (Glass-Sealed Refractory) Technologyp. 30
Cofired Laminated Ceramic Technologyp. 32
Laminated Plastic Technologyp. 39
Comparison of Package Technologiesp. 56
Summary and Future Trendsp. 58
Referencesp. 62
Device Reliabilityp. 65
What is Reliability?p. 65
Accelerated Agingp. 67
Failure Mode and Effects Analysisp. 69
The Kinetics of Degradationp. 70
Hazard Ratesp. 80
Common Mathematical Functions Used for Estimating Reliabilityp. 82
Cost of Reliabilityp. 84
Referencesp. 85
Physics and Chemistry of Failures in Packaged Devicesp. 87
Introductionp. 87
Mass Transport Effectsp. 88
Solid-State Reactionsp. 88
Liquid-State Reactionsp. 96
Electromigrationp. 100
Thermal Mismatch Effectsp. 102
Humidity Effectsp. 111
Referencesp. 113
Strategies for Locating Failuresp. 115
Interpreting Electrical Test Resultsp. 115
Using Package Design Files as Failure Roadmapsp. 116
Introduction to Package Design File Structuresp. 117
Wirebond Diagramsp. 117
Flip Chip Bump Mapsp. 119
Package Design Filesp. 120
Package Net Listsp. 123
Automated Test Equipment Failure Error Logs: Starting with the Failure Datap. 124
Test Vehicle Design with Improved Fault Isolation Capabilitiesp. 125
Issues with Fault Isolation Using Production Packaged Devicesp. 127
Cost of Doing Package Evaluations on Production Devicesp. 127
Benefits of Simplified Opens and Shorts Testing for Quick Evaluation of New Packagingp. 127
Generating Opens and Shorts Testers in Production Devicesp. 128
Single-Metal-Level Silicon Die as Drop in Opens and Shorts Testersp. 128
Case Study No. 1: Finite Element Analysis to Help Identify Root Causesp. 130
Package Informationp. 131
FEA Modeling Considerationsp. 133
Simulation Resultsp. 136
Discussionp. 137
Case Study No. 2: Large Die Flip Chip Test Vehiclep. 141
Test Vehicle Descriptionp. 142
Reliability Testing Programp. 146
Design of Experiment Descriptionsp. 149
Failure Analysis Approachp. 150
Finite Element Analysis Approachp. 150
Results and Discussionp. 151
Concluding Remarksp. 166
Case Study No. 3: Multichip Plastic BGAp. 168
Device Descriptionp. 169
Reliability Test Programp. 171
Finite Element Analysisp. 180
Design Of Experimentp. 184
Concluding Remarksp. 185
Conclusionp. 185
Referencesp. 186
Failure Analysis Techniquesp. 187
Imaging Techniquesp. 187
Optical Microscopyp. 188
Real-Time X-Ray Analysisp. 189
Scanning Acoustic Microscopyp. 191
Thermal Imagingp. 197
Scanning Electron Microscopyp. 201
Transmission Electron Microscopyp. 204
Focused Ion Beamp. 208
Moire Interferometryp. 211
Shadow Moirep. 213
Scanning Superconducting Quantum Interference Device Microscopyp. 215
Dye Penetrant Leak Detectionp. 218
Analytical Techniquesp. 222
Energy Dispersive Spectroscopyp. 223
Auger Electron Spectroscopyp. 227
X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopyp. 229
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopyp. 230
Wetting Balance Solderability Testp. 233
Electrical Techniquesp. 234
DC Electrical Characterizationp. 234
Time Domain Reflectometryp. 236
Destructive Techniquesp. 240
Package Decapsulation Techniquesp. 240
Mechanical Polish Techniquesp. 243
Dry Etching for Package FAp. 248
Wirebond Pull and Shearp. 251
Referencesp. 254
Examples of Failure Modes Common in Organic IC Packagesp. 257
Introductionp. 257
Failures in Dual In-Line Packagesp. 258
Open Contacts--Lifted Ball Bondsp. 258
Failures in Quad Flat Packsp. 259
Open Contacts--Sheared Ball Bondsp. 259
Open Contacts--Sheared Ball Bondsp. 262
Opens and Shorts--Intermetallic Growthp. 263
Shorted Leads--Foreign Material between Leadsp. 264
Shorted Leads--Foreign Material between Leadsp. 266
Failures in Plastic Ball Grid Array Packagesp. 269
Open Contact--Via Barrel Crackingp. 269
Open Contacts--Cracked Signal Traces in Substratep. 272
Open Contacts--Via Knee Crackingp. 272
Open Contacts--Lifted Wedge Bondsp. 277
Open Contact--Cracked Via Barrelp. 281
Open Contact--Cracked Signal Trace in Substratep. 282
Open Contact--Lifted Ball Bondsp. 283
Open Contact--Broken Bond Wirep. 286
Open Contact--Cracked Diep. 287
Shorted Contacts--Die Attach Material on Exposed Cup. 288
Failures in Matrix Ball Grid Array Packagesp. 292
Open Contact--Via Knee Crackingp. 292
Substrate Opens--Cracked Signal Trace in Substratep. 293
Failures in Plastic BGA Multichip Modulesp. 295
Intermittent Open Contacts--Cracked Signal Tracesp. 295
Open Contacts--Cracked Signal Tracesp. 296
Functional--Dendritic Growthp. 298
Shorted Contacts--Die Attach Material on Exposed Cup. 302
Failures in Plastic Enhanced Ball Grid Array, Cavity-Down Packagesp. 302
Open Contacts--Broken Bond Wiresp. 302
Open Contacts--Sheared Ball Bonds/Damaged Signal Tracesp. 305
Failures in Plastic Flip Chip Ball Grid Array Packagesp. 305
Open Contacts--Cracks around FC Bump Padsp. 305
Open Contacts--Cracks around BGA Padsp. 309
Open Contacts--Flip Chip Bump Crackingp. 315
Open Contact--Incomplete Via Shapep. 317
Shorted Contacts--Vertical Deformation of Signal Tracep. 319
Shorted Contact--In-Plane Cu Bridgep. 321
Emerging Assembly Materials for IC Packagingp. 325
Introductionp. 325
Lead-Free-Compatible Assembly Materialsp. 326
Characteristics Specific to Lead-Free Materialsp. 326
Lead-Free-Compatible Mold Compoundsp. 329
Lead-Free-Compatible Die Attachp. 348
Concluding Remarksp. 352
Referencesp. 353
Indexp. 355
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780071434843
ISBN-10: 0071434844
Series: McGraw-Hill Professional Engineering
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 366
Published: 1st May 2004
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.8 x 15.8  x 3.2
Weight (kg): 0.69
Edition Number: 1