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A practical, proven approach to failure analysis of wood and wood-based products using a full range of forensic analysis methods In Failure Analysis of Wood and Wood-Based Products an expert in the areas of failure analysis, coatings, and wood preservatives presents innovative ways to analyze obvious wood failure and answer the important question of what went wrong-and who has to pay.
The book provides an in-depth look at the various common causes of damage to wood and wood-based materials, including surface and coating damage by chemical influences, damage linked to design and conditions of use, and material characteristics. Analytical methods that can in many cases be carried out locally are presented.
Offers a full range of forensic analysis methods, including wood moisture measurement, light microscopy, physical and chemical processes, frottage, imprints, lighting, and staining Many of the described techniques are easy to perform and do not require bringing in outside experts. The methods are designed to clearly convey findings to persons of any background and level of understanding
About the Author
Dr. Dirk Lukowsky started his career as a finish carpenter, eventually qualifying as a master cabinetmaker. After ten years spent learning his craft, he studied wood science and technology at the University of Hamburg and earned his Ph.D. with a thesis on the protection of wood with melamine resins. Since 1999, he has worked at the Fraunhofer Institute for Wood Research (WKI) in Brunswick, where he specializes in failure analysis and wood protection.
1 Preface 2 Principles of failure analysis 2.1 Avoiding mistakes 2.2 Sampling 2.3 Differential findings 2.3.1 Patterns 2.3.2 Time of appearance 2.3.3 Organizational hints 2.3.4 Comparison with common materials 3 Failure characteristics 3.1 Cracks 3.1.1 Cracks in MDF edges 3.1.2 Cracks in solid wood 3.2 Delamination 3.2.1 Adhesives 3.2.2 Coatings 3.3 Surface defects 3.3.1 Discoloration 3.3.2 Maceration 3.4 Deformation 4 Causes for failures 4.1 Solid wood4.1.1 Fiber deviations 4.1.2 Slip planes 4.1.3 Extractives 4.2 Wood composites 4.2.1 Delamination of coatings 4.2.2 Large particles/holes in the surface layer 4.2.3 Veneer cracks 4.3 Bonding 4.3.1 Glue thickness/pressure 4.3.2 Unpressed glue beads 4.3.3 Adhesive bleeding 4.4 Coating 4.4.1 Coating thickness 4.4.2 Microfoam 4.4.3 Surface preparation 4.4.4 Elasticity/ductility 4.5 Chemical influences 4.5.1 Coatings and adhesives 4.5.2 Reactions with iron 4.6 Geometrical aspects 4.6.1 Stress concentrations 4.6.2 Parallel veneers in plywood 4.6.3 Edge loss 4.7 Conditions of use 4.7.1 Moisture 4.7.2 UV radiation 4.7.3 Temperature 4.7.4 Mechanical stresses 5 Methods 5.1 Sampling 5.2 Documentation 5.2.1 Photography5.2.2 Scanning 5.2.3 Imprints 5.2.4 Frottage 5.2.5 Fluorescence 5.2.6 Accuracy of measurements 5.2.7 Estimation of distributions and amounts 5.3 Sanding from above 5.4 Patterns of features 5.4.1 Large scale patterns 31 drawings show possible patterns of defects and their interpretation. I have never seen anything similar in a publication. 5.4.2 Distribution in buildings 5.5 Chronology of patterns5.5.1 Discolorations and layer analysis5.5.2 Fungi/Insects 5.5.3 Honey bread effect 5.5.4 Thickness of materials 5.6 Reproduction of production- and use conditions 5.7 Wood moisture content 5.7.1 Electronic measurement5.7.2 Oven drying 5.7.3 Geometrical moisture estimation 5.7.4 Further hints for moisture conditions 5.8 Physical methods .5.8.1 Bonding tests 5.8.2 Mechanical coating testing 5.8.3 Water uptake/wetting/capillarity 5.8.4 Density 5.8.5 Thermal flow thermography5.8.6 Estimation of stresses 5.9 Microscopy 5.9.1 USB-Microscopes 5.9.2 Sample preparation 5.9.3 Lighting methods 5.9.4 Microscopic features in cross sections 5.9.5 Coating thickness and coating buildup 5.9.6 Analysis of starch grains 5.10 Chemical methods 5.10.1 Staining 5.10.2 Instrumental techniquesReferences Index
ISBN: 9780071839372 ISBN-10: 0071839372 Series: P/L Custom Scoring Survey Audience:
Number Of Pages: 240 Published: 12th February 2015 Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education - Europe Country of Publication: US Dimensions (cm): 24.5 x 20.0
Weight (kg): 0.66
Edition Number: 1