Sustainable development and the protection of the environment are concepts that have become inescapably connected. At the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in September 2002, the challenges facing the global environment were discussed at length. Air, water and marine pollution continue to rob millions of a decent life, loss of biodiversity continues, fish stocks are being depleted, desertification claims more fertile land, climate changes are having devastating effects, natural disasters are more frequent and developing countries are even more vulnerable. (Principle 13).This volume examines these important issues and adapts a practical approach. It outlines the programme of sustainable development in concrete fields of economic and environmental cooperation.The concept for this volume originated from the Conference on Exploitation and Management of Natural Resources in the Twenty-First Century: The Challenge of Sustainable Development. The Conference was organised by the British Institute of International and Comparative Law and the Department of Law at Queen Mary, University of London.