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Evolution and Escalation : An Ecological History of Life - Geerat J. Vermeij

Evolution and Escalation

An Ecological History of Life

Paperback Published: 15th August 1993
ISBN: 9780691000800
Number Of Pages: 548

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Here is one biologist's interpretation of the chronology of life during the last six hundred million years of earth history: an extended essay that draws on the author's own data and a wide-ranging literature survey to discuss the nature and dynamics of evolutionary change in organisms and their biological surroundings. Geerat Vermeij demonstrates that escalation--the process by which species adapt to, or are limited by, their enemies as the latter increase in ability to acquire and retain resources--has been a dominant theme in the history of life despite frequent episodes of extinction.

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"With the impressive scope and rich synthesis of this work, the author has assumed the mantle of a provocative pundit of paleobiology."--Science "With the impressive scope and rich synthesis of this work, the author has assumed the mantle of a provocative pundit of paleobiology."--Alan J. Kohn, Science "An extraordinarily useful book to students of evolutionary paleobiology."--Carlton Brett, Geology

Prefacep. XI
A Theory of Adaptation
Aptations and Selective Agenciesp. 3
Natural Selection and Adaptationp. 3
The Recognition of Aptationsp. 7
Effectiveness, Improvement, and Escalationp. 10
Environmental Challenges and Pathways of Adaptationp. 15
The Ranking of Selective Agenciesp. 23
Limits to Adaptationp. 26
The Nature of Limitationp. 26
Genetic and Developmental Limitationp. 27
Ecological Limitationp. 30
The Spatial Dimensionp. 42
Summary of the Theory of Adaptationp. 46
Hypotheses and Their Evaluation in a Historical Sciencep. 49
Predictions from the Theory of Adaptationp. 49
The Nature of Historical Inquiryp. 53
Artifacts and Resolution in the Fossil Recordp. 55
Functional Morphology and Ecological Inference in Fossilsp. 61
The Acquisition of Resources
Mechanisms and History of Competitionp. 67
Types of Competitionp. 67
Clones and Coloniesp. 70
Competition in Plantsp. 78
Metabolic Rate and Competitionp. 82
Competition for Matesp. 95
Summaryp. 99
Safe Places, Anachronistic Aptations, and the Recycling of Resourcesp. 102
The Invasion of Safe Places and Its Consequencesp. 102
The Identification of Safe Placesp. 103
Deep Waterp. 104
Caves and Interstitial Environmentsp. 107
The Infaunal Environmentp. 108
Bioerosion and the Endolithic Environmentp. 119
Fresh Water and the Dry Landp. 130
Parasitism and Mutualismp. 136
Summaryp. 140
The Predators of Armored Animals: Functional Morphology and Historyp. 142
Methods of Subjugationp. 143
The History of Molluscivoryp. 173
Summary and Conclusionsp. 185
The Evolution of Armor and Locomotion
The Functional Morphology and History of Gastropod Armorp. 191
The Functions of Armorp. 191
The Characteristics of Gastropod Shell Armorp. 192
The Effectiveness of Gastropod Armorp. 205
The History of Gastropod Armorp. 210
The History of Traces of Predationp. 227
Summary and Conclusionsp. 237
Opportunistic Armor: The Evolution of the Conchicolous Habitp. 240
The Conchicolous Habitp. 240
Benefits and Risks of the Conchicolous Habitp. 243
The Effects of Shell Supplyp. 246
Improving the Shell Resourcep. 249
The History of the Conchicolous Habitp. 251
Evolutionary Effects of Conchicoles on Shell-Buildersp. 252
Summaryp. 254
Locomotion and the Evolution of Movement in Gastropodsp. 256
General Features of Locomotionp. 256
Locomotion in Gastropodsp. 262
The History of Gastropod Burrowingp. 266
Summaryp. 268
Armor and Locomotion in Cephalopodsp. 271
Adaptational Dilemmasp. 271
The History of Cephalopod Armorp. 277
Locomotion in Cephalopodsp. 285
Summary and Conclusionsp. 288
Armor and Locomotion in Bivalved Animalsp. 290
The Bivalve Shellp. 290
Vivalve Armorp. 292
Patterns of Armor in Space and Timep. 301
Traces of Predationp. 305
Locomotion in Pelecypodsp. 311
Summaryp. 315
Armor and Locomotion in Articulated Animalsp. 317
Functional Possibilities and Limitationsp. 317
Arthropod Moltingp. 319
Conglobation in Arthropodsp. 320
The Carapace Form in Arthropodsp. 326
Size in Land Arthropodsp. 328
Bamaclesp. 329
Echinodermsp. 332
Armor in Vertebratesp. 339
Swimming in Vertebratesp. 347
Running in Land Animalsp. 348
Powered Flightp. 354
Summaryp. 355
Escalation, Diversification, and Extinction
The Dynamics of Escalationp. 359
A Review of the Evidence Pertaining to Escalationp. 359
A Chronology of Phanerozoic Escalationp. 361
The Role of Extrinsic Eventsp. 371
Conditions Favorable to Escalationp. 376
Marine Transgressions and Productivityp. 378
Climatic Change and Biotic Interchangep. 382
Intrinsic Factors: The Importance of Nutrientsp. 386
Summary and Conclusionsp. 387
Extinctionp. 390
A Theory of Extinctionp. 390
Timing, Frequency, and Magnitude of Extinctionp. 396
The Decrease in Extinction Ratep. 400
Selectivityp. 401
Population Size and Geographical Rangep. 413
Post-Crisis Conditionsp. 414
Summaryp. 416
Implications, Difficulties, and Future Directionsp. 418
The Domain of Individual Adaptationp. 418
Evolutionary Progressp. 419
Objections and Alternative Interpretationsp. 421
Future Researchp. 426
Appendixp. 431
Referencesp. 435
Indexp. 521
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691000800
ISBN-10: 0691000808
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 548
Published: 15th August 1993
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.37 x 15.49  x 3.56
Weight (kg): 0.8

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