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Evidence-Based Educational Methods : Educational Psychology - Daniel J. Moran

Evidence-Based Educational Methods

Educational Psychology

Hardcover Published: 21st May 2004
ISBN: 9780125060417
Number Of Pages: 408

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Evidence-Based Educational Methods answers the challenge of the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001 by promoting evidence-based educational methods designed to improve student learning. Behavioral scientists have been refining these instructional methods for decades before the current call for evidence-based education. Precision Teaching, Direct Instruction, Computerized Teaching, Personalized System of Instruction, and other unique applications of behavior analysis are all informed by the scientific principles of learning, have been tested in the laboratory, and are often shown to have significant success in field applications. This book details each of these approaches to education based on the principles of behavior analysis. Individuals and agencies responsible for instruction that leaves no child behind will find this compendium an important resource for meeting that challenge, and young educators will greatly benefit from this text, as they will see a blueprint of the evidence-based education systems being planned for the future.
* The education literature is replete with fly-by-night ideas and unresearched opinions about how to teach children. This book has none of that. The reader is given researched educational methods. In fact, some methods draw on 3 or 4 decades of experimental data. The whole book is cohesive, not just a patchwork of different educators' opinions. All of the chapters are built on basic scientific principles of behavior, and all of the methods can be used with one another
* This is a book by scientist-practitioners, but not for scientists only. A parent can read many of these chapters, see the merit in the methods, and convey the need and the process for each of the methods
* No book stands alone, but is connected to a greater literature base. The reader is shown where other information can be found about these methods.
* The only thing better than scientific data is scientific data supported by consumer testimonial

Contributorsp. xix
Prefacep. xxiii
Introduction to Evidence-Based Educational Methods
The Need for Evidence-Based Educational Methods
Introductionp. 3
No Child Left Behindp. 4
Behavior Analysis and Educationp. 5
Reviewing the Outcomes and Principles of Effective Instruction
Introductionp. 9
Precision Teachingp. 14
Direct Instructionp. 15
Programmed Instructionp. 17
Personalized System of Instructionp. 18
Emphasis on the Written Wordp. 19
Self Pacingp. 19
Masteryp. 20
Proctorsp. 20
Lectures for Motivation or Reinforcementp. 20
Summary and Conclusionp. 21
A Real Science and Technology of Education
Introductionp. 23
The Need for a Strategic Science of Instructionp. 25
Components of an Advanced and Sophisticated Science and Technology of Instructionp. 28
Cabas: A Systems Technology of Schooling and a Strategic Science of Pedagogyp. 37
Conclusionp. 41
Precision Teaching
Precision Teaching: Foundations and Classroom Applications
Why Precision Teaching?p. 47
The Chartp. 49
Example of Precision Teaching Implementationp. 50
Read a Chartp. 50
Chart Featuresp. 52
Predictionp. 53
Relative Emphasisp. 53
Wide-Range Displayp. 54
Another Chart Example: Middle Schoolp. 55
Learning/Celerationp. 58
Precision Teaching's Place in Teaching and Educationp. 59
Ethics and Precision Teaching Measures in Schoolsp. 60
Precision Teaching: Applications in Education and Beyond
Introductionp. 63
Precision Teaching and Special Educationp. 66
Precision Teaching for Adult Learners in College and Pre-Vocational Trainingp. 68
Precision Teaching Applications for Individuals with Various Disabilitiesp. 70
Precision Teaching with Thoughts, Urges, and Other "Inner" Phenomenap. 74
Precision Teaching, Computers, and Internet Resourcesp. 74
Conclusionsp. 76
Direct Instruction
Direct Instruction: The Big Ideas
Introductionp. 81
Teaching Generalizable Strategiesp. 82
Instructional Programs that Powerfully and Systematically Build Skillsp. 83
Clear and Explicit Instructionp. 83
Sequence of Instructionp. 84
Provide Initial Support, Then Gradually Reduce Supportp. 84
Provide Sufficient Practice and Mastery Critierap. 85
Provide Clear Instructions to Teachersp. 86
Tracksp. 86
Organize Instruction to Maximize High-Quality Instructional Interactionsp. 87
Placementp. 87
Flexible, Skill-Based Grouping for Efficient Instructionp. 88
High Rates of Overt and Active Engagementp. 89
Provide Effective Correctionsp. 90
Research Related to Direct Instructionp. 91
Teacher-Made Scripted Lessons
Introductionp. 95
Definition of Explicit Instructionp. 95
Scripted Lessonsp. 96
Orient and Reviewp. 97
Presentation of New Contentp. 98
Practicep. 99
Modelp. 100
Probes and Checksp. 101
Formal Assessmentsp. 101
Independent Practicep. 105
Examsp. 105
Distributed Practicep. 105
Positive Outcomes of Scripted Lessonsp. 106
The Competent Learner Model: A Merging of Applied Behavior Analysis, Direct Instruction, and Precision Teaching
Introductionp. 109
Applied Behavior Analysis and The Competent Learner Modelp. 112
What repertoires need to be developed or weakened?p. 112
What stimuli are available to affect change in behavior?p. 113
What contingencies are required to develop or weaken the repertoires?p. 113
How can the parts of instructional conditions be arranged and rearranged to develop the competent learner repertoires?p. 114
Direct Instruction and the Competent Learner Modelp. 114
Precision Teaching and the Competent Learner Modelp. 117
The Components of the Competent Learner Modelp. 117
The CLM Course of Studyp. 117
Coachingp. 118
Collaborative Consultationp. 118
Evidence of the Impact of the Competent Learner Modelp. 121
Computers and Teaching Machines
Effective Use of Computers in Instruction
Introductionp. 127
What are the Types of Instructional Software?p. 128
Tutorialp. 128
Drill-and-Practicep. 128
Simulationsp. 129
What are the Features of EffectiveInstructional Software?p. 130
Antecedents for Desired Behaviorp. 130
Behavior: Active and Frequent Student Respondingp. 131
Consequences: Feedback for Student Responsesp. 132
What Makes Software Design Effective?p. 132
Navigational Aidsp. 132
Presentation Style and Organization Structurep. 133
Distinctiveness of Informationp. 133
Text Characteristicsp. 133
What is the Evidence for the Effectiveness of Automated Instruction?p. 134
Meta-Analytic General Resultsp. 135
Specific Meta-Analytic Findingsp. 136
How Should Particular Instructional Software be Evaluated?p. 137
Contentp. 137
Outcomesp. 137
Generalizationp. 137
Conclusionsp. 138
Adaptive Computerized Educational Systems: A Case Study
Undergraduate Teaching in the Modern Universityp. 143
Undergraduate Teaching in Small Liberal Arts Collegesp. 145
Computers and Adaptive Instructionp. 149
Adaptive Control, Teaching, and Learningp. 151
Adaptive Instructionp. 151
Adaptive Testingp. 153
Mediamatrix and its Current Use in Higher Educationp. 154
Fully Supported Shaping of Reading Comprehension Skillsp. 155
Successive Approximations to Less Prompted Learningp. 156
Further Development of Verbal Associate Networksp. 157
Full Development of Verbal Associate Networksp. 158
How the Probe Mode Worksp. 159
More on Adaptive Programmed Instruction: Parametrics of How Mediamatrix Worksp. 159
Assess and Certification Modesp. 159
Instructor Options for Managing Student Contact with the Tutoring Systemp. 160
Empirical Research on Mediamatrix Delivered Adaptive Instructionp. 161
Higher Education's Four Horsemen of its Apocalypsep. 165
Conclusionp. 168
Selected for Success: How Headsprout Reading Basics Teaches Beginning Reading
Introductionp. 171
Key Skills and Strategies Students and Teachers' Best Friendsp. 172
Learning Methodologies: Foundational and Flexiblep. 175
Embracing the Burden of Proof: Headsprout's Unparalleled Learner Testingp. 178
Enabling Evolution: Headsprout's Recombinant Teaching and Engineering Modelsp. 182
Headsprout's Internet Advantage: Broad Availability and Continuous Improvementp. 183
Headsprout Reading basics: Empirical Datap. 183
Instructional Adaptabilityp. 184
Learner Performance Datap. 184
Reading Outcomesp. 185
Demonstrated Effectivep. 192
Educator Feedbackp. 192
Conclusionp. 195
Personalized System of Instruction
The Personalized System of Instruction: A Flexible and Effective Approach to Mastery Learning
Introductionp. 201
History and Overviewp. 202
Key Features of PSIp. 203
The Rise of PSIp. 204
The Fall of PSIp. 205
Effectivenessp. 206
Flexibilityp. 208
Implementing PSI in the 21st Centuryp. 209
Deciding To Use PSIp. 210
Key Features of PSI: Updated and Revisedp. 211
Conclusionp. 216
Making the Most of PSI with Computer Technology
Introductionp. 223
Computers in Higher Educationp. 224
A Brief History of CAPSIp. 224
How CAPSI Utilizes Computer Capabilitiesp. 225
Information-Processing Capabilitiesp. 226
Data Storage Capabilitiesp. 229
Communications Capabilitiesp. 229
Refinements of CAPSIp. 230
Higher-Order Thinkingp. 230
Incentives for Student Behaviorp. 234
Plagiarismp. 235
Preventing Mastery-Criterion Circumventionp. 235
Trainingp. 236
Programming CAPSIp. 237
The Peer Review System at Workp. 237
Comparison with Traditional Coursesp. 241
Comparison with Other Computer-Mediated Coursesp. 241
Expanding on Technologyp. 242
Research Studies on CAPSIp. 242
Significant Developments in Evidence-Based Education
The Morningside Model of Generative Instruction: An Integration of Research-Based Practices
About Morningside Academyp. 247
Current Workp. 248
Morningside Teachers' Academyp. 249
External Partnershipsp. 249
Summer School Institute(SSI)p. 249
Morningside Technology Transferp. 249
Philosophical and Empirical Underpinningsp. 250
Generativity and Contingency Adductionp. 251
A System of Instructionp. 252
Establishing Objectives and Analyzing Contentp. 252
Content-Dependent Analysisp. 253
Content-Independent Analysisp. 253
Instructional Program Developmentp. 254
Critical Thinking and Self-Regulationp. 259
Self-Direction and Independencep. 260
Program Placement and Monitoring Based on Continuous Measurement of Performancep. 261
Classroom Managementp. 262
Empirical Data Supporting Technology Transfer of the Morningside Model of Generative Instructionp. 263
Conclusionp. 264
Learning Efficiency Goes to College
Introductionp. 267
What is Learning Efficiency?p. 268
Three Possible Causes of Poor Learning Efficiencies and Their Solutionsp. 269
Case Study: Evaluating Learning Efficiencies in a CPSY 101 Coursep. 270
What the Data Can Tell us about How to Improve Learning Efficienciesp. 272
Learning Efficiency Goes to Collegep. 274
Teaching the Generic Skills of Language and Cognition: Contributions from Relational Frame Theory
Introductionp. 277
Relational Frame Theoryp. 279
Defining Derived Relational Respondingp. 279
Relational Framingp. 281
Research in Relational Frame Theory and its Implications for Educationp. 283
Derived Transformations of Function in Accordance with Symmetryp. 283
Teaching Derived Mandingp. 284
Establishing the Relational Frames of More-Than, Less-Than, and Oppositep. 287
Relational Responding and Perspective Takingp. 290
Summary and Conclusionsp. 292
Key Instructional Components of Effective Peer Tutoring for Tutors, Tutees, and Peer Observers
Introductionp. 295
Responding, Engagement, and an Effective Teacher Measurep. 297
New Experimental Analyses of Components of Effective Tutoring: Brief Reports of Five Studiesp. 301
p. 301
(Experiments 1 and 2)p. 308
p. 314
p. 318
p. 323
General Discussionp. 330
Training Professionals Using Sequential Behavior Analysis
History and Introductionp. 335
Technologyp. 337
A Sequential Analysis Illustrationp. 338
Providing a Databasep. 338
Scientific Methodsp. 340
Participants and Settingp. 340
Dependent Measuresp. 341
Observation Protocolp. 342
Inter-Observer Agreementp. 343
Experimental Designp. 343
General Instructional Feedback Strategy Proceduresp. 344
Treatment Implementation Trainingp. 344
Treatment Integrityp. 346
Study Resultsp. 347
IO and AIA Datap. 347
OO and AOA Datap. 347
Discrete Pupil Datap. 351
Social Validation Datap. 354
Implications for Education and Professional Trainingp. 354
A Future for Sequential Behavior Analysisp. 357
Grammar and Writing Skills: Applying Behavior Analysis
Neglected Writing Skillsp. 361
Methods of Teaching Writingp. 362
Writing as a Performancep. 364
The Behavioral Paradigmp. 364
Behavioral Strategiesp. 365
Shapingp. 366
Measurementp. 366
Short-Term Feedbackp. 366
Long-Term Feedbackp. 367
Discrimination Trainingp. 367
Competition Analysisp. 370
The Process of Writingp. 371
A Last Wordp. 373
Indexp. 375
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780125060417
ISBN-10: 0125060416
Series: Educational Psychology
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 408
Published: 21st May 2004
Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 2.41
Weight (kg): 0.68

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