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Evaluating Indirect Ecological Effects of Biological Con - Eric Wajnberg

Evaluating Indirect Ecological Effects of Biological Con

By: Eric Wajnberg (Editor), John Scott (Editor), Paul Quimby (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 1st December 2000
ISBN: 9780851994536
Number Of Pages: 288

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A major concern for biological control has always been the risk of indirect unwanted effects on the ecology of other organisms. Our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary processes underlying these effects has until now been limited, and experimental methods are sometimes lacking. This book presents the key papers form the first International Organization for Biological Control global symposium, held in Montpellier, France in October 1999. It addresses the issues and concerns involved in biological control, and assesses the current status of evaluation of the ecological effects.

Contributorsp. xi
Prefacep. xv
Indirect Ecological Effects in Biological Control: the Challenge and the Opportunityp. 1
Introductionp. 1
What will happen to biological control in this century?p. 2
Efficacy and safety of biological control: a historical perspectivep. 6
Recent developments in biological controlp. 7
The role of ecologyp. 9
Conclusionp. 10
Referencesp. 11
Indirect Interactions, Community Modules and Biological Control: a Theoretical Perspectivep. 13
Introductionp. 14
Classical biological control is deliberate 'community assembly'p. 14
One approach to complexity: community modulesp. 16
Shared predation: identifying extinction risks for non-target preyp. 18
Disparate impacts of shared predationp. 19
Simple messages from theoryp. 21
Message Ip. 21
Message IIp. 23
Message IIIp. 24
Indirect interactions influence transient risks during agent establishmentp. 27
Landscape-scale indirect effects: the importance of community opennessp. 28
Transient dynamics in shifting landscapesp. 30
Indirect interactions and evolutionp. 31
Conclusionsp. 31
Referencesp. 34
Research Needs Concerning Non-target Impacts of Biological Control Introductionsp. 39
Introductionp. 39
Internet workshop on 'Research needs for assessing and reducing non-target impacts of biological control introductions'p. 40
What sorts of non-target impacts should concern us?p. 40
Host range evaluationp. 41
Predicting impacts of biological control introductions versus other management optionsp. 42
Retrospective studies to assess impactsp. 43
Montpellier workshop on 'Evaluating indirect ecological effects of biological control'p. 44
Identification of major research questionsp. 45
Approaches to answering selected questionsp. 47
Conclusionsp. 54
Referencesp. 55
Food Webs, Risks of Alien Enemies and Reform of Biological Controlp. 57
Introductionp. 58
Biological control in conservationp. 58
Food webs, direct and indirect interactionsp. 59
Differences between natural and cultivated systemsp. 63
Risks of biological controlp. 63
Weed biological controlp. 65
Insect biological controlp. 66
Parasitoids and general predatorsp. 66
Ladybird beetlesp. 68
The campaign against Russian wheat aphidp. 69
Reform of biological controlp. 70
Referencesp. 74
Evaluation of Non-target Effects of Pathogens Used for Management of Arthropodsp. 81
Introductionp. 82
Types of controlp. 83
Classical biological controlp. 83
Inundative augmentative releasesp. 86
Non-target effects of pest control using entomopathogensp. 87
Classical biological controlp. 88
Inundative augmentative releasesp. 91
A special case: genetically engineered pathogensp. 92
Methods for evaluating non-target effectsp. 92
Conclusionsp. 94
Referencesp. 94
Insect Biological Control and Non-target Effects: a European Perspectivep. 99
Introduction: the ERBIC projectp. 100
A retrospective analysis of published and unpublished datap. 102
Methodsp. 102
Resultsp. 104
Database conclusionsp. 112
Case studies in European biological controlp. 113
Exotic specialist parasitoidsp. 114
Exotic generalist parasitoidsp. 116
Generalist exotic predatorsp. 118
Fungi and nematodes as bioinsecticidesp. 120
Mathematical modelling and ecological theoryp. 121
Overviewp. 122
Referencesp. 123
Biological Control in Africa and its Possible Effects on Biodiversityp. 127
Introductionp. 128
Case studiesp. 131
Cassava mealybugp. 131
Mango mealybugp. 133
Spiralling whiteflyp. 134
Cassava green mitep. 135
Lepidopterous stemborersp. 136
Cowpea thripsp. 137
Larger grainborerp. 138
Water hyacinthp. 140
Fungal pathogens against grasshoppersp. 140
Discussionp. 141
Referencesp. 144
Rhinocyllus conicus: Initial Evaluation and Subsequent Ecological Impacts in North Americap. 147
Introductionp. 148
Natural history of Rhinocyllusp. 150
Pre-release studies in Europe (1961-1968)p. 151
Early field studiesp. 152
Early laboratory studies of host acceptance, preference and performancep. 153
Early post-release studies (1969-1985)p. 156
Field studies in Europep. 156
Laboratory and greenhouse studies of preference and performance in North Americap. 158
Garden plot and field studies in North Americap. 158
Recent studies of Rhinocyllus (1986-1999)p. 161
Variation in phenologyp. 161
Phenotypic and genetic variation in host usep. 161
Non-target feeding on Cirsium species in North Americap. 163
Thistle-insect interactions in prairies of the upper Great Plainsp. 164
Altered ecological interactions in the new environment?p. 167
Discussionp. 169
Host specificity: feeding acceptance, oviposition and larval performancep. 170
Host specificity: larval survival and performancep. 172
Prediction of quantitative ecological effectsp. 173
Conclusionsp. 174
Referencesp. 176
Risk Analysis and Weed Biological Controlp. 185
Introductionp. 186
Risk analysis and biological control: some definitionsp. 187
Comparative risk analysis (CRA)p. 188
Risk assessmentp. 188
The NAS modelp. 188
Ecological models of risk assessmentp. 189
Difficulties of predictionp. 190
Prediction toolsp. 193
Risk scenariosp. 196
Risk managementp. 200
Risk communicationp. 201
Backgroundp. 201
Release application procedures in different countriesp. 201
Precautionary principlep. 202
Good and bad risk communicationp. 203
Monitoringp. 203
Synthesisp. 204
Referencesp. 205
Incorporating Biological Control into Ecologically Based Weed Managementp. 211
Introductionp. 211
Management objectivesp. 212
Need for predictive capabilityp. 212
Mechanisms and processes directing plant community dynamicsp. 213
Incorporating biological control into ecologically based weed managementp. 215
Modelling and predicting weed management's influence on community dynamicsp. 215
Successional weed managementp. 215
Designed disturbancep. 216
Controlled colonizationp. 217
Controlled species performancep. 218
Examplesp. 219
Life-history modelsp. 221
Assessing the indirect impacts of biological controls using community dynamics modelsp. 225
Referencesp. 225
The Scope and Value of Extensive Ecological Studies in the Broom Biological Control Programmep. 229
Introductionp. 230
Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius, as a target for biological controlp. 231
Ecological studies undertaken on broom in its native range in Europe and elsewherep. 232
The value of ecological studies in predicting the success and safety of biological control of broomp. 239
Predicting the impact of agents for the biological control of broomp. 239
Predicting side effects after the introduction of a biological control agent against broomp. 240
Conclusionp. 243
Referencesp. 245
Indexp. 249
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780851994536
ISBN-10: 0851994539
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 288
Published: 1st December 2000
Publisher: CAB INTL
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.13 x 16.51  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.59

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