European Energy Law Report VII presents, in four parts, an overview of the most important legal developments in the field of EU and national energy and climate change law as discussed at the 2009 European Energy Law Seminar. The first part of the book examines recent developments in EU climate change regulation. It includes an overview of the revision of the EU Directive governing CO2 emissions trading and a more detailed analysis of the new allocation regime, including the auctioning of emission rights. This is followed by an analysis of the competitiveness of the new EU Emissions Trading Directive and recent developments in the US regarding emissions trading. The second section focuses on the energy liberalization process and the Third Energy Package. Following an overview of recent developments in EU competition law and the impact of the Sector Inquiry on the energy sector, this section concentrates particularly on the new Internal Energy Market Directives and most particularly on the legality of the unbundling provisions. Subsequently, the focus is on the role of the Transmission System Operators (TSOs). After an analysis of the need for an increased cooperation of the German TSOs, another chapter discusses the need for more consolidation in the European gas transmission market and the role of regulation therein. Is there a new role for nuclear energy? In order to secure long term energy supply, the focus turns again to nuclear energy. The third part of this report discusses two elements of nuclear liability. First, it analyzes the issue of the possible privatization of the nuclear sector and its impact on long term liability. Although the focus is on the UK nuclear sector, a comparison is made with some other regulatory regimes. Thereafter, the role of 'nuclear' is discussed as an instrument to reduce CO2 emissions and, more particularly, as a means to reach the 20-20-20 targets. The question is raised whether the international rules on civil liability provide sufficient protection to victims of nuclear accidents and whether these rules may distort the internal market process. Finally, the book examines the role of Russia in securing European energy supply. First, the role of the Barents Sea is discussed from an international and national law perspective. This is followed by an overview of Russian energy policy and the Russian approach to dispute settlement mechanisms. The last chapter provides an illustration of the dispute settlement as it discusses, from a legal perspective, the transit conflict between Russia and the Ukraine.