New Orleans surrenders The European Brigade was a troop of men formed by the European residents of New Orleans. Their aim was to protect themselves and families from a feared attempt by mobs to seize control of the city after the rebel troops left and before the Union troops arrived. Union naval forces fought their way up the Mississippi River past rebel forts and arrived off New Orleans on the 24h of April, 1862. Rebel troops began abandoning the city on April 23rd.and were completely gone in several days. The city did not surrender until April 29th, and it wasn't until May 1st that the first Union troops arrived. Europeans made up a large part of the population of the city at the time of the Civil War. The Confederate government permitted them the option of acting as auxiliary police rather than serving as Confederate troops. The Brigade leader, General Paul Juge ordered his men to protect Union surrender negotiators from the mob which threatened to kill the Union officers as the talks proceeded. As a result many considered him to be pro Union. He was also derided for his relationship with a quadroon woman. The author, Peter Juge, has lived all over the world as a US Foreign Service officer and international oil company executive. This is his seventh book. He was born and raised in New Orleans and heard the European Brigade story from relatives. As there was only one large Juge clan, he assumes he is related to Paul.