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Escape from Violence : Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World - Aristide R. Zolberg

Escape from Violence

Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World

Hardcover

Published: 10th August 1989
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The magnitude of refugees movements in the Third World, widely perceived as an unprecedented crisis, has generated widespread concern in the West. This concern reveals itself as an ambiguous mixture of heartfelt compassion for the plight of the unfortunates cast adrift and a diffuse fear that they will come "pouring in." In this comprehensive study, the authors examine the refugee flows originating in Latin America, Africa, and Asia, and suggest how a better understanding of this phenomenon can be used by the international community to assist those in greatest need. Reviewing the history of refugee movements in the West, they show how their formation and the fate of endangered populations have also been shaped by the partisan objectives of receiving countries. They survey the kinds of social conflicts characteristic of different regions of the Third World and the ways refugees and refugee policy are made to serve broader political purposes.

"Informative, provocative."--Journal of Asian Studies "A valuable contribution to our understanding."--Political Science Quarterly "What makes Escape from Violence so important is that it is at once historical, theoretical, empirical, and practical. [The book] takes the reader--even the informed reader--far beyond what is available in 'the literature' by providing a different cut on the problems, particularly on the question of state formation and conflicts over the nature of the social order, and by not only reviewing the 'root causes' of refugee flows but suggesting how they might be dealt with in the future. The combination of creative thinking and realism could turn the work into a blueprint for action if those who have the power to influence social policy take the suggestions seriously."--Peter I. Rose, Smith College "A mature statement of a theory, and supporting cases, of the relationships between causes of social conflict and the refugee implications. The systemic treatment is pathbreaking. This work will be one of those giants on whose shoulders others build."--Charles B. Keely, Georgetown University "It is an essential book for all scholars concerned with conflict in the Third World. The book is highly relevant in comparative politics, international relations, and security studies."--Ted Gurr, University of Maryland, College Park "Informative, provocative."--Journal of Asian Studies "A valuable contribution to our understanding."--Political Science Quarterly "What makes Escape from Violence so important is that it is at once historical, theoretical, empirical, and practical. [The book] takes the reader--even the informed reader--far beyond what is available in 'the literature' by providing a different cut on the problems, particularly on the question of state formation and conflicts over the nature of the social order, and by not only reviewing the 'root causes' of refugee flows but suggesting how they might be dealt with in the future. The combination of creative thinking and realism could turn the work into a blueprint for action if those who have the power to influence social policy take the suggestions seriously."--Peter I. Rose, Smith College "A mature statement of a theory, and supporting cases, of the relationships between causes of social conflict and the refugee implications. The systemic treatment is pathbreaking. This work will be one of those giants on whose shoulders others build."--Charles B. Keely, Georgetown University "It is an essential book for all scholars concerned with conflict in the Third World. The book is highly relevant in comparative politics, international relations, and security studies."--Ted Gurr, University of Maryland, College Park "Scholarly and at the same time sympathetic."--American Journal of Sociology "Escape from Violence is of interest to international relations scholars because it analyzes the refugee crisis in the developing world within a theoretical context. Zolberg and his associates analyze the refugee crisis as part of a world system in which, as they put it, "national societies persist but are internationalized to a higher degree than ever before." As a result, violent conflicts that create refugees must be seen as resulting from external as well as internal forces. Escape from Violence enables its readers to discern a little-discussed and terrifying dimension of transnational relations in contemporary world politics."--Robert O. Keohane, Harvard University

Historical and Analytic Perspectives
Who Is a Refugee?p. 3
Why Definitions Matterp. 3
Classic Refugeesp. 5
Religious Persecutionp. 5
Political Oppositionp. 8
National Minorities and the Statelessp. 11
The Reinstatement of Barriers Against Exitp. 16
Refugee Crises and the Emergence of an International Refugee Regimep. 18
The First European Crisisp. 18
The Second European Crisisp. 21
Challenges from the Developing Worldp. 27
Conclusion: In Fear of Violencep. 29
Regional Studies
Ethnic Conflict in the New States of Sub-Saharan Africap. 37
A Crisis in the Makingp. 37
The Weakest States, the Weakest Economiesp. 40
Weak States and Ethnic Conflictp. 44
Ethnic Revolution and Counterrevolution in Rwanda and Burundip. 45
The Two Wars of the Two Sudansp. 50
The Fragmentation of Chadp. 56
Tyrannical Rule and Its Legacy in Ugandap. 63
In the Long Shadow of South Africap. 72
Southern Africa as a Regional Complexp. 72
The Struggle Against Settler Regimesp. 75
Angolap. 75
Mozambiquep. 79
Zimbabwep. 82
Namibiap. 86
Structural Transformations Under Siegep. 90
"Total Strategy" and "Linkage"p. 90
Angolap. 91
Mozambiquep. 94
Playing for Time in Namibiap. 98
Separatism, Revolution, and War in Ethiopia and the Hornp. 103
Competitive State-Formation in the Hornp. 103
Concatenated Conflictp. 106
Eritrean Separatismp. 106
The Ethiopian Revolutionp. 108
Somalia and the Ogaden Conflictp. 112
Eritrea After the Revolutionp. 115
Famine and Its Aftermathp. 117
African Prospectsp. 120
The New Statesp. 121
Ethiopia and the Hornp. 122
Southern Africap. 122
Reorganization of Political Communities in South Asiap. 126
Asia's Refugees: An Overviewp. 126
The Classic Case: Partition of Indiap. 129
South Asia After Partitionp. 135
International Conflict and Refugee Flowsp. 136
Internal Conflict and Refugeesp. 136
Revolution and Intervention in West Asia: Afghanistanp. 150
Revolution and Reaction in East Asiap. 155
The Classic Case: Revolution in Chinap. 156
Revolutionary Southeast Asiap. 160
Vietnamp. 161
Laosp. 168
Kampucheap. 170
Reformist Southeast Asiap. 173
Asian Prospectsp. 176
Social Conflict and Refugees in Latin Americap. 180
Introductionp. 180
Cubap. 184
The Impact of a Socialist Revolutionp. 184
Some Effects of the Cuban Revolutionp. 191
Haitian Un-Developmentp. 192
The National Security States in the Southern Conep. 198
Social Revolutions and Refugees in Central Americap. 204
The Roots of Social Revolutionp. 204
The Central American Exodusp. 210
Prospects for Latin Americap. 220
Theoretical and Policy Implications
Patterns of Social Conflict and Refugee Movementsp. 227
The Contemporary Crisis Reconsideredp. 227
The Globalization of Social Conflictp. 230
Refugees and the Formation of New Statesp. 232
Violent Decolonizationp. 232
Ethnic Conflict in the New Statesp. 235
Refugees and Conflicts over the Social Orderp. 245
The Waning of Revolutions and the Persistence of Rebellionsp. 251
Bureaucratic-Authoritarian Rulep. 255
Weak States: Exit and Implosionp. 256
Toward a Better International Refugee Regimep. 258
The Root Causes of Refugeesp. 258
The Debatep. 258
Poverty and Refugeesp. 260
Root Causes and Social Changep. 262
Dealing with Root Causesp. 263
Institutional Reformsp. 263
The Role of External Partiesp. 264
Regional Peace Systemsp. 265
Dealing with the Flowsp. 269
The Definitional Question Revisited: Who Is a Refugee?p. 269
Politicization and Demystificationp. 272
Special Problems of Our Timep. 275
Refugee-Warrior Communitiesp. 275
Refugees and North-South Relationsp. 278
The Asylum Challengep. 279
Notesp. 283
Indexp. 359
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780195055924
ISBN-10: 0195055926
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 398
Published: 10th August 1989
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.91 x 15.34  x 2.46
Weight (kg): 0.57