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Equal Play : Title IX and Social Change - Nancy Hogshead-Makar

Equal Play

Title IX and Social Change

By: Nancy Hogshead-Makar (Editor), Andrew Zimbalist (Editor)

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Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 reflects America's aspirational belief that girls and boys, women and men, both deserve equal educational opportunities in athletics. "Equal Play: Title IX and Social Change" shows how this now commonly-held ideal has been both implemented and thwarted over the years via actions in the legislature, executive and judicial branches of government. The book collects the best scholarship and essays, the important court cases, the administrative regulations and supporting documents on this important social movement. The authors demonstrate how government actions can shape, support, or hinder the goal of gender equality in athletic departments. They develop a discussion on the history of women in sports, analyze the meaning of "equal opportunity" for girls and women to participate in sports, and examine shifts in the arguments for and against Title IX. The expansive time-frame allows students to consider legal advocacy not as a means of overcoming a single hurdle or an event to be achieved, but as a continuum of progress toward the central purpose of the law.

"A good primer on history and struggles...the authors clearly spell out the periodic backlashes to Title IX as well as its victories." Ms Magazine 2007 "A particular strength of this collection is its strategic reliance on primary source materials, government documents, scholarly analyses, and contemporary writings to tell the story of Title IX's impact on women's sports and American society overall." Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics "A valuable edition to the literature...Recommended." Nancy Hogshead-Makar and Andrew Zimbalist "In Equal Play, editors Nancy Hogshead-Makar and Andrew Zimbalist bundle primary documents and administrative regulations with a diverse and excellent collection of excerpts from well known publications, essays, and speeches...Equal Play will prove to be an invaluable addition to your private collection of resources and references. Similarly, it would serve as an outstanding companion text for a number of courses or as a pre-course reading to establish a common baseline of knowledge regarding the historical, social, and legal context of Title IX...Equal Playis a well written and thoroughly researched text that provides a critical review of the historical, social and political context in which Title IX was conceived, became law, and now exists...The arguments are clearly presented and supported by thorough documentation and research." The Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport "Hogshead-Makar and Zimbalist have assembled an impressive array of contributors...They also include original legal documents, commission reports and recommendations, conservative political attacks on Title IX, and forceful counterarguments that respond to the attacks. The documents and data make this book a rich source of information for researchers and students." Women's Review of Books "[It] provides a thorough investigation into the debate surrounding sports and Title IX... Hogshead-Makar and Zimbalist do an excellent job of cutting through this debate by engaging three distinct discourses... Overall, the book is a valuable resource for anyone interested in gender equity and public policy." Signs, Spring 2009

Acknowledgmentsp. xi
Introductionp. 1
Women's Sports before Title IX
Introductionp. 7
Coming on Strong: Gender and Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Sportsp. 9
Heroines as Well as Heroesp. 14
Didrikson Was a Woman Ahead of Her Timep. 31
Sport Is Unfair to Women (Part 1)p. 35
Staking a Claim: The First Decade
Introductionp. 49
Speech of Senator Birch Bayh to the New York Women's Political Caucusp. 56
Amendment to Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972p. 59
Statement of Hon. Birch Bayh, a U.S. Senator from the State of Indiana, on the Tower Amendmentp. 60
Javits Amendmentp. 64
1975 Title IX Regulationsp. 65
A Policy Interpretation: Title IX and Intercollegiate Athleticsp. 67
United States District Court, D. Kansas: National Collegiate Athletic Association v. Joseph Califano et al. (decided January 9, 1978)p. 84
Supreme Court of the United States: Geraldine G. Cannon v. University of Chicago et al. (decided May 14, 1979)p. 92
The Initial Backlash: The 1980s
Introductionp. 99
Supreme Court of the United States: Grove City College et al. v. Terrel H. Bell et al. (decided February 28, 1984)p. 108
Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987p. 116
Reducing the Commercialization of Intercollegiate Athleticsp. 119
Accelerated Pace: The 1990s
Introductionp. 129
Testing Title IX: Amy Cohen and Brown Universityp. 140
United States Court of Appeals, First Circuit: Amy Cohen et al. v. Brown University et al. (decided November 21, 1996)p. 144
1996 Clarification of Intercollegiate Athletics Policy Guidance: The Three-Part Testp. 152
Letter from the U.S. Department of Education to Bowling Green State Universityp. 163
Women in Intercollegiate Sport: A Longitudinal, National Study, Twenty-Nine Year Update, 1977-2006p. 169
Stronger Womenp. 171
The Second Backlash: 2001-2008
Introductionp. 179
United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit: National Wrestling Coaches Association et al. v. Department of Education (decided May 14, 2004)p. 188
Tilting the Playing Field: Schools, Sports, Sex and Title IXp. 197
A Critique of Tilting the Playing Field: Schools, Sports, Sex and Title IXp. 218
What to Do about Title IXp. 239
Open to All: Title IX at Thirtyp. 243
Minority Views on the Report of the Commission on Opportunity in Athleticsp. 256
Limitations of the Department of Education's On-Line Survey Method for Measuring Athletic Interest and Ability on U.S.A. Campusesp. 276
Bush Administration Uses Stealth Tactics to Subvert Title IXp. 283
Football Is a Sucker's Gamep. 286
Title IX by the Numbersp. 302
Indexp. 307
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781592133802
ISBN-10: 1592133800
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 328
Published: 28th December 2007
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.78  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.58