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Environmental Pollution Control : An Introduction to Principles and Practice of Administration :  An Introduction to Principles and Practice of Administration - J. McLoughlin

Environmental Pollution Control : An Introduction to Principles and Practice of Administration

An Introduction to Principles and Practice of Administration

By: J. McLoughlin (Editor)

Hardcover Published: March 1993
ISBN: 9781853335778
Number Of Pages: 288

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This work is written for those who seek effective ways of controlling environmental pollution. Indeed, many developing and East European states look to the experience of the United States and Western Europe. This book does not, however, concentrate on any one system of control or control laws, but succeeds in introducing the exact nature of pollution problems and the variety of ways in which effective control and management have been achieved. Rather than advocate a ready-made system, lessons are drawn for example from the U.K., U.S.A., Sweden, Denmark, France, Germany and New Zealand, and instructive legislative samples are reproduced, the place of international obligations being clearly marked out. The skilful and wide-ranging comparative approach adopted renders this handbook yet more valuable, based as it is on the premise that a control system is better if it is built on existing institutional and legal structures. The book will interest all who advise on environmental matters on a daily basis, particularly senior administrators, policy makers, institutions, legal advisers and researchers.

Environmental Pollutionp. 1
Environmental Changep. 1
Scope of the Term 'Pollution Control'p. 4
Pollution Damagep. 7
Objectives of Pollution Controlp. 9
Systems of Administrationp. 21
Necessary Elements of a System of Controlp. 21
Systems of Controlp. 22
The Policy Makersp. 23
The Administrationp. 23
Enforcement Processp. 24
Safeguards for the General Publicp. 29
Democracy and Justicep. 32
Safeguards Against Corruptionp. 34
Integrated Systems of Controlp. 35
System of Internal Departmental Controlsp. 38
Control by Independent Authorityp. 40
The Choice Between the Two Main Systemsp. 41
Other Systems of Controlp. 43
Techniques of Controlp. 47
Purposes of Control Measuresp. 47
Objectives and Standardsp. 48
Product Standards and Performance Standardsp. 50
Classification of Controlsp. 54
The Contribution of Economic Instruments to Environmental Managementp. 54
Administrative Controlsp. 63
Legal Controls - Civilp. 67
Legal Controls - Criminalp. 69
Enforcementp. 99
Forms of Enforcementp. 99
Powers and Duties of Authorities Enforcing Criminal Provisionsp. 99
Special Powers of Enforcement Officers, and Necessary Safeguards for the Operator or Dischargerp. 103
Civil Liabilityp. 105
Pollution Control and Civil Liabilityp. 105
Standards Applied in Civil and Criminal Liabilityp. 106
Forms of Civil Liabilityp. 107
Criteria Appropriate to Liability for Pollution Damagep. 109
Damage from Unattributable Sourcesp. 112
Environmental Damage - Willing and Competent Plaintiffsp. 114
Limitations on Liabilityp. 122
Rights of Individualsp. 131
Nature and Sources of Individual Rightsp. 131
Right to Informationp. 134
Right to Submit and have Considered Objections and Representationsp. 138
Appealsp. 138
Private Prosecutionsp. 141
Actions Against the Control Authoritiesp. 142
Polluter Pays Principlep. 145
Meaning and Scope of the Polluter Pays Principlep. 145
Compensation for Pollution Damagep. 148
Exceptions to the Polluter Pays Principlep. 150
Application of the Principle in Practicep. 151
Scope of the Polluter Pays Principlep. 152
The Polluter Pays Principle - Policy and Practicep. 155
International Obligationsp. 157
Introductionp. 157
The Sources of International Lawp. 158
Transnational Administrative Lawp. 159
The Definition of Pollution at International Lawp. 161
General Principles of International Environmental Law and the Problem of International Responsibilityp. 162
The Types of Pollutionp. 167
Regional Approaches to Marine Pollutionp. 174
Global Warming and Ozone Depletionp. 177
Environmental Policies of the ECp. 178
Conclusionp. 179
Appendix A : United Kingdomp. 181
Type of Constitutionp. 181
Legislationp. 182
Administration of Pollution Controlsp. 183
Public Watchdogsp. 184
Appendix B : United States of Americap. 185
Type of Constitutionp. 185
Legislationp. 186
Administration of Pollution Controlsp. 186
Work of the Environmental Protection Agency on Standards and Controlsp. 191
Control of Pollution of the Atmospherep. 192
Appendix C : Swedenp. 195
Type of Constitutionp. 195
Legislationp. 196
Administration of Pollution Controlsp. 197
Researchp. 199
Appendix D : Denmarkp. 201
Type of Constitutionp. 201
Legislationp. 202
Administration of Pollution Controlsp. 202
Appendix E : Francep. 205
Type of Constitutionp. 205
Jurisprudencep. 206
Administration of Pollution Controlsp. 206
Integrated System of Control for Certain Classified Installationsp. 209
Appendix F : Federal Republic of Germanyp. 211
Type of Constitutionp. 211
Legislaturep. 211
Administrationp. 213
Judiciaryp. 215
Forms of Controlp. 217
Appendix G : New Zealandp. 221
New Zealand Environment Actp. 221
Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environmentp. 221
Ombudsmanp. 224
Appendix H : Examples of Existing Legislative Provisionsp. 225
Enforcement and Improvement Noticesp. 225
Control, Prohibition and Stop Notices and Ordersp. 227
Freedom of Informationp. 229
Obligation to Consultp. 238
Indexp. 241
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781853335778
ISBN-10: 1853335770
Series: International Environmental Law and Policy Series
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 288
Published: March 1993
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 1.6
Weight (kg): 0.54