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Environmental Kuznets Curves : A Study on the Economic Theory and Political Economy of Environmental Quality Improvements in the Course of Economic Growth - Michael P. Vogel

Environmental Kuznets Curves

A Study on the Economic Theory and Political Economy of Environmental Quality Improvements in the Course of Economic Growth

Paperback Published: 21st May 1999
ISBN: 9783540656722
Number Of Pages: 201

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Environmental Kuznets Curves - one of the most controversial issues of current environmental economics - suggest that economic growth may lead to environmental quality improvements. Why and under which circumstances this may be so, are the questions addressed in this book. The approach taken is formal, using techniques of static and dynamic optimisation. In addition, the main assumptions, arguments and conclusions are also presented in a non-formel way.

Acknowledgementsp. VII
Introductionp. 1
1 Why Does the Environment Matter?p. 2
Patterns of Environmental Changep. 5
Data and Techniquesp. 5
Continued Environmental Deteriorationp. 7
Continued Environmental Improvementsp. 10
Environmental Kuznets Curvesp. 11
Objectives and Methodologyp. 14
Overview of this Studyp. 16
Economic Determinants of Environmental Quality Changesp. 21
Emission Accountingp. 22
Unintentional Emission Reductionsp. 26
Structural Changep. 26
Price Shocksp. 27
Intentional Emission Reductionsp. 30
Opportunity Costp. 30
Materialism Versus Post-Materialismp. 31
Valuing Environmental Quality Improvementsp. 33
Assumptions of the Modelp. 33
Shadow Prices as Opportunity Costsp. 35
Shadow Prices as Net Present Benefitsp. 36
"Green" Net National Productp. 38
Environmental Quality as a Flowp. 41
The Emergence of Demand for Pollution Reductionsp. 43
Corner Solutions of Abatementp. 43
Abatement Spending in the Course of Growthp. 45
Emissions and Pollution in the Course of Growthp. 47
Explaining the N-Curve of Fecal Coliformp. 50
Concluding Remarksp. 51
Appendixp. 52
The Pollution Stockp. 52
The Implicit Abatement Function (Stock Model)p. 52
The Implicit Abatement Function (Flow Model)p. 53
The Implicit Emission Functionp. 54
Environmental Preferences, Socially Optimal Growth, and Pollutionp. 55
The General Model and its Dynamicsp. 56
Assumptions of the General Modelp. 56
The Social Optimump. 58
Environmental Quality and Growth in the Development Phasep. 59
The Environment Phasep. 62
Extension to n Dimensions of Environmental Qualityp. 65
Functional Forms for Utility and Environmental Qualityp. 68
Assumptions and Optimum Conditionsp. 68
The Development Phasep. 70
The Environment Phasep. 71
The Post-Environment Phasep. 74
Is Environmental Quality a Luxury?p. 76
Essential and Necessary Goodsp. 76
Engel Curvesp. 77
Preferences, Prices and Technologyp. 78
Why Environmental Quality Is Not An Ordinary Goodp. 80
Concluding Remarksp. 81
Appendixp. 83
Concavity of the Generalised Hamiltonianp. 83
Global Saddle-Point Stability 'in the Development Phasep. 84
Boundedness of Intertemporal Utilityp. 85
Capital Growth in the Environment Phasep. 85
Abatement in the Environment Phasep. 88
Income Distribution, Desired Environmental Policy, and Green Middle-Class Elitismp. 89
Environmental Policy and Environmental Qualityp. 90
Public Goods and their Provision by the Governmentp. 90
Abatement and the Pollution Taxp. 91
Distributional Inequality and Pollutionp. 93
Assumptions about the Consumer Sidep. 93
The Households' Environmental Policy Choicep. 95
Does Distributional Inequality Matter for Desired Policy?p. 96
The Middle Class and Environmental Protection Issuesp. 98
The Middle Class as Environmental Elitep. 99
Distribution and Public Support of Environmental Policyp. 100
Sensitivity of Income to Environmental Policy Changesp. 101
Assumptions about Income Level and Compositionp. 101
The Households' Environmental Policy Choicep. 102
The Income Level Effectp. 103
The Income Composition Effectp. 104
The Middle Class as Environmental Elite (1)p. 105
A More General Interpretation of Assumptions and Resultsp. 105
A Private Supplement to Public Environmental Qualityp. 106
Private Defensive Expenditurep. 108
Policy Choice when Defensive Expenditure is Fixedp. 110
The Middle Class as Environmental Elite(2)p. 112
Concluding Remarksp. 112
Appendixp. 113
Sufficiency of First-Order Conditionp. 113
The Income Level Effectp. 114
The Income Composition Effectp. 115
Defensive Expenditure and Its Opportunity Costp. 116
Desired Tax Rate and Fixed Defensive Expenditurep. 116
Environmental Concern, Green Campaigning, and Corporate Lobbyingp. 119
Environmental Concern and Public Environmental Policyp. 119
Environmental Concern as a Filter of Realityp. 119
The Concept of Perceived Pollutionp. 120
The Household as Consumer and Voterp. 122
Government Objective Functions and Endogenous Policy Theoryp. 123
The Government's Environmental Policyp. 126
A Simple Functional Forms Examplep. 127
Green Campaigningp. 129
Green Core and Grey Householdsp. 130
Government Policyp. 130
Optimal Campaigningp. 131
External Effects of Campaigningp. 134
A Tax on Campaigning?p. 136
Corporate Lobbyingp. 137
Government Policyp. 138
Optimal Lobbyingp. 140
Lobbying: External Effects and Taxationp. 141
Green Campaigning Revisitedp. 142
Concluding Remarksp. 143
Appendixp. 144
The Opportunity Loss of Campaigningp. 144
Optimal Campaigningp. 145
Lobbying and the Opportunity Loss of Campaigningp. 146
The Effect of Lobbying on Optimal Campaigningp. 147
Endogenous Environmental Policy and its Effects on a Growing Economyp. 149
A Multi-Sector Growth Model with Pollutionp. 150
Assumptions about the Consumer Sidep. 151
Welfare Maximisationp. 152
Assumptions about Production, Pollution, and the Use of Outputp. 154
Profit Maximisation and Optimal Capital Allocationp. 158
Two Lemmasp. 161
Government Objective and Policyp. 162
The Development Phasep. 164
Optimal Growth and Stabilityp. 165
Goods Prices, Demand and Sectoral Structurep. 165
Factor Intensityp. 166
Pollution Intensityp. 167
The Environment Phasep. 168
Concluding Remarksp. 170
Appendixp. 171
Consumption and Total Wealthp. 171
Proof of Lemma Ip. 172
Proof of Lemma 2p. 173
The Pollution Tax Equation in the Development Phasep. 174
Stability in the Development Phasep. 175
Factor Intensity and Factor Price Ratiop. 177
Environmental Kuznets Curves: Limitations and Opportunitiesp. 179
A Simple Concept and its Complex Realisationp. 179
Environmental Kuznets Curves: Not a Cure-Allp. 181
From Cowboy Economy to Spaceman Economyp. 183
Symbols and Abbreviationsp. 185
Figuresp. 189
Referencesp. 191
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540656722
ISBN-10: 3540656723
Series: Lecture Notes in Economic and Mathematical Systems
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 201
Published: 21st May 1999
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 1.17
Weight (kg): 0.31