World Bank Discussion Paper No. 257. Countries in the Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC) have invested heavily in primary education over the past 10 years. International studies of achievement, however, show that LAC countries still perform significantly worse than those in the developed world and worse than many developing countries in Asia. This report reviews selected issues and progress to date in the LAC region and makes recommendations for the future. The paper recommends strategies for managing three elements that are identified as fundamental for improving primary education: increasing the provision of pre-schooling, making textbooks and teaching materials available, and changing teachers' behavior through new incentives and techniques. The volume includes tables, figures, and more than nine case studies. Also available in Spanish: (ISBN 0-8213-2986-3) Stock No. 12986.