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Engines : An Introduction - John L. Lumley


An Introduction

Paperback Published: 15th November 1999
ISBN: 9780521644891
Number Of Pages: 268

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The internal combustion engine that powers the modern automobile has changed very little from its initial design of some eighty years ago. Unlike many high tech advances, engine design still depends on an understanding of basic fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. This text offers a fresh approach to the study of engines, with an emphasis on design and on fluid dynamics. Professor Lumley, a renowned fluid dynamicist, provides a lucid explanation of how air and fuel are mixed, how they get into the engine, what happens to them there, and how they get out again. Particular attention is given to the complex issue of pollution. Every chapter includes numerous illustrations and examples and concludes with homework problems. Examples are taken from the early days of engine design, as well as the latest designs, such as stratified charge gasoline direct injection engines. It is intended that the text be used in conjunction with the Stanford Engine Simulation Program (ESP). This user-friendly, interactive software tool answers a significant need not addressed by other texts on engines. Aimed at undergraduate and first-year graduate students, the book will also appeal to hobbyists and car buffs who will appreciate the wealth of illustrations of classic, racing, and modern engines.

"A delight to read and will be enjoyed equally by students and automobile enthusiasts. It is an essential addition to any engineering library, and to the bookshelves of automotive engineers as well as serious car hobbyists." Applied Mechanics Reviews

Dedicationp. v
Prefacep. xi
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Thermodynamic Considerationsp. 1
The Ideal Otto Cyclep. 1
Efficienciesp. 5
Air Cycle Efficiencyp. 5
Real Gas Efficiencyp. 6
Indicated Efficiencyp. 6
A More Realistic Cyclep. 7
Time Lossp. 8
Heat Lossp. 9
Exhaust Blowdown Lossp. 9
Other Lossesp. 9
Knockingp. 12
Mean Effective Pressuresp. 15
A Word on Unitsp. 15
Brake Mean Effective Pressurep. 16
Indicated Mean Effective Pressurep. 17
Piston Speedp. 17
Specific Powerp. 18
Stroke/Bore Ratiop. 19
Power Equationp. 24
Influence on Designp. 26
Bmep Againp. 27
Some More Thermodynamicsp. 29
Turbulence and Flow in the Cylinderp. 29
Heat Transferp. 30
Chemical Reactionp. 30
Heating Values and Enthalpyp. 31
Problemsp. 31
Breathing Exercisesp. 33
Introductionp. 33
Flow Through the Inlet Valvep. 33
The Discharge Coefficientp. 35
The Flow Coefficientp. 37
The Mach Index and Volumetric Efficiencyp. 38
Partial Throttlep. 41
The XK Enginep. 42
Combustion Chamber Shapep. 44
Valve Actuationp. 48
Valve Timingp. 54
Variable Valve Timingp. 59
Manifold Tuningp. 66
Introductionp. 66
Helmholtz Resonatorsp. 66
Organ Pipesp. 70
What Does ESP Do?p. 76
The Exhaust Systemp. 77
Folding the Manifoldp. 78
Supercharging/Turbochargingp. 80
Introductionp. 80
Characteristics of Super/Turbochargersp. 82
Thermodynamic Considerationsp. 85
Turbinesp. 87
Knockp. 87
Intercoolersp. 89
Problemsp. 92
Engine Coolingp. 95
Introductionp. 95
Valve Seat Recessionp. 97
Heat Transfer in the Cylinderp. 100
Conduction in the Solidp. 100
Heat Transfer in the Gasp. 101
Variation of Part Temperaturep. 103
Turbulent Velocitiesp. 104
Conclusions Regarding Temperaturesp. 106
Overall Heat Transferp. 106
The Exhaust Valvep. 111
Ceramic Coatingsp. 114
Problemsp. 116
Engine Friction Lossesp. 118
Lubricationp. 118
Total Engine Frictionp. 119
Attribution of Friction Lossesp. 122
Hydrodynamic Lubricationp. 125
Mechanical Efficiencyp. 127
Inertial Loadingp. 129
The Piston Ringp. 130
Problemsp. 132
Flow in the Cylinderp. 134
Introductionp. 134
Phases of the Flowp. 136
Averagingp. 137
A Word About Turbulencep. 142
Turbulence Induced by the Inlet Jetp. 145
Inducing Swirl and Tumblep. 148
Lift Strategiesp. 153
Port and Valve Configurationsp. 153
Effect of Compressionp. 155
Effect on Swirl and Tumblep. 155
Effect on Turbulencep. 158
Charge Stratificationp. 161
Squishp. 163
Pollutionp. 163
Atmospheric Chemistryp. 168
Chemistry in the Cylinderp. 168
Lean Burnp. 170
Honda VTEC-E 1.5 L SOHC 16 Valve Four-in-Linep. 172
Toyota Carina 4A-ELU 1.6 L DOHC 16 Valve Four-in-Linep. 172
Mitsubishi Mirage 4G15MPI-MVV 1.5 L SOHC 12 Valve Four-in-Linep. 172
Mazda Surround Combustion 2.0 L DOHC 16 Valve Four-in-Linep. 173
Gasoline Direct-Injection Enginesp. 174
Mitsubishi GDI Enginep. 181
Toyota GDI Enginep. 181
Problemsp. 181
Overall Engine Performancep. 185
Introductionp. 185
Carburetion vs. Injectionp. 185
Fuel Injectionp. 186
Mixing and Evaporationp. 186
Droplet Sizep. 187
Puddlingp. 188
Transient Responsep. 189
Brake Specific Fuel Consumptionp. 189
Power and Torque Curvesp. 191
Problemsp. 193
Design Considerationsp. 194
Introductionp. 194
Similarity Considerationsp. 194
Inertial Stressp. 196
Valve Speedp. 197
The MIT Enginesp. 199
Balance and Vibrationp. 201
The In-Line Fourp. 203
The Forcesp. 203
Momentsp. 204
Balance Shaftsp. 205
The Five Cylinder In-Linep. 205
Problemsp. 208
The Stanford Espp. 210
Introductionp. 210
Outline of the Modelp. 211
Model Detailsp. 213
Gas Propertiesp. 213
Analysis of the Compression Stagesp. 213
Ignition Analysisp. 214
Analysis of the Burn Stagep. 215
Analysis of the Expansion Stagep. 218
Analysis of the Gas Exchange Stagep. 218
Turbulence Modelp. 221
ESP Manifold Analysisp. 222
Overviewp. 222
Unsteady One-Dimensional Compressible Flowp. 223
The Method of Characteristicsp. 226
Inlet Manifold Modelp. 232
Exhaust Manifold Modelp. 233
ESP Calculationsp. 234
Program Statusp. 235
Bibliographyp. 237
Indexp. 243
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521644891
ISBN-10: 0521644895
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 268
Published: 15th November 1999
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 25.3 x 17.7  x 1.4
Weight (kg): 0.44