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Engineering in Emergencies : A Practical Guide for Relief Workers :  A Practical Guide for Relief Workers - Robert Lambert

Engineering in Emergencies : A Practical Guide for Relief Workers

A Practical Guide for Relief Workers

By: Robert Lambert (Editor), Jan Davis (Editor)

Paperback

Published: January 2002
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This is a hugely successful practical handbook for all relief workers involved in giving humanitarian assistance. It provides the information needed to implement an effective engineering response in the aftermath of an emergency. This second edition maintains the practical content of the first but has been revised and updated to reflect developments in humanitarian relief in recent years. The combination of "hard" topics, such as water and sanitation, and "soft" topics, such as managerial skills and personal effectiveness, has been retained from the original edition and the book expanded to include two new chapters on security and telecommunications. The new second edition will be available both as a paperback book, and a hardwearing field edition with pvc cover and handy CD-ROM included for portability. Engineering in Emergencies was developed in collaboration with the agency RedR - Engineers for Disaster Relief

'this is an outstanding book and a major landmark in its field.' John G. Evans, CIWEM.

Introductionp. xv
Emergenciesp. 1
An overview of disasters and emergenciesp. 1
Disasters and emergenciesp. 1
Relief and developmentp. 2
The people in emergenciesp. 3
Directly and indirectly affected peoplep. 3
Refugees and displaced peoplep. 4
Power relations and vulnerabilityp. 6
Humanitarian principles and standardsp. 9
The Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement--fundamental principlesp. 9
Red Cross and Red Crescent/NGO Code of Conductp. 10
InterAction's PVO standardsp. 10
Humanitarian Accountability Projectp. 11
The Sphere Projectp. 11
The Geneva Conventions and Protocolsp. 12
The humanitarian relief systemp. 13
Sources of reliefp. 13
Government agencies and co-ordination mechanismsp. 13
Co-ordination mechanismsp. 13
Donorsp. 15
The United Nations systemp. 16
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movementp. 19
NGOs (non-governmental organizations)p. 20
The private sector and research institutionsp. 22
Private sectorp. 22
Specialist institutionsp. 22
Military organizationsp. 22
Personal effectivenessp. 25
Who will be effective?p. 25
Personal planningp. 26
Before your assignmentp. 27
During your assignmentp. 35
After your assignmentp. 37
Personal health carep. 38
Stressp. 41
Working with different culturesp. 45
Cultural awarenessp. 46
Culture shockp. 46
Issues of consciencep. 48
Publicity and the mediap. 48
Personal securityp. 50
Situation awarenessp. 50
Security strategiesp. 52
Acceptancep. 52
Protectionp. 53
Deterrencep. 54
Security proceduresp. 55
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)p. 55
Contingenciesp. 56
Self-management, teamwork and preparednessp. 57
Self-managementp. 57
Teamworkp. 58
Preparationp. 58
Assessment and planningp. 59
Assessmentp. 59
Needs and resourcesp. 59
The assessment processp. 61
Writing an assessment reportp. 63
Planning in emergenciesp. 64
Planning frameworkp. 64
Principles and guidelinesp. 67
Planning bar chartsp. 70
Techniques for the collection and analysis of informationp. 72
Interviewingp. 73
Brainstormingp. 73
Direct observationp. 73
Participatory mappingp. 75
Rankingp. 75
Questionnaire surveysp. 77
Refugee profiles, context, activities and resourcesp. 78
Managementp. 82
Management functions, styles and structuresp. 82
Functions of managementp. 82
Management stylesp. 83
Management structuresp. 83
Professionalismp. 84
Managing peoplep. 86
Self-managementp. 86
Recruitmentp. 86
Motivationp. 87
Working with a large labour forcep. 88
Working with host and displaced communitiesp. 90
Working with colleaguesp. 91
Working with contractorsp. 92
Information and communicationp. 95
Information and record keepingp. 95
Communicationp. 96
Meetingsp. 97
Negotiation and conflict resolutionp. 98
Negotiationp. 98
Conflict resolutionp. 100
Office practicep. 101
Filing systemp. 101
Office proceduresp. 102
Financial managementp. 103
Budgetingp. 103
Budget codesp. 103
Monitoringp. 104
Regular accountingp. 105
Security of cashp. 106
Trainingp. 106
Organizing trainingp. 106
Training yourselfp. 108
Logisticsp. 109
Overview of a logistics systemp. 109
Procurementp. 111
Specifyingp. 111
Orderingp. 111
Purchasingp. 112
Supply and transportp. 114
Freightp. 114
Transportp. 115
Specialist itemsp. 118
Documentationp. 119
Waybills and Bills of Ladingp. 119
Customs: import and export documentationp. 121
Receiving, storing and issuing goodsp. 122
Stores managementp. 122
Storage of specialist itemsp. 125
Goods handling equipmentp. 126
Telecommunicationsp. 128
Introductionp. 128
Safety firstp. 129
Frequency, wavelength and physical effectsp. 130
Radio equipment selectionp. 131
VHF (Very High Frequency) radiop. 132
HF (High Frequency) radiop. 132
Antennasp. 134
Satellite communicationsp. 134
Radio operationp. 135
Legal issuesp. 137
Environmental healthp. 138
Introductionp. 138
The health of a disaster-affected populationp. 138
Environmental health controlsp. 141
Establishing an environmental health programmep. 141
Cholera controlp. 148
Hygiene promotionp. 152
Environmental sanitationp. 155
Excreta disposal--assessment and planningp. 155
A strategy for actionp. 155
Factors to considerp. 157
Excreta--immediate actionsp. 159
Control of indiscriminate defecationp. 159
Defecation fieldsp. 161
Medium-term measures for excreta disposalp. 163
General guidelines for latrinesp. 163
Communal latrinesp. 167
Pit latrinesp. 170
Improvements to existing latrinesp. 170
Borehole latrinesp. 170
Simple pit latrinesp. 171
Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrinesp. 171
Disposal of sullage and runoffp. 173
Sullagep. 173
Rainfall runoffp. 178
Refuse disposalp. 179
Sources and types of refusep. 179
Refuse collectionp. 179
Refuse disposal methodsp. 180
Hospital wastesp. 180
Disposal of the deadp. 182
Cultural practices and needsp. 182
Burialp. 183
Insects and rodentsp. 183
Insect controlp. 183
Rodent controlp. 189
Emergency water supplyp. 193
Assessmentp. 193
Assessment approachp. 193
Contamination of water sourcesp. 195
Immediate actionsp. 196
Medium- to long-term actionsp. 199
The medium termp. 199
The longer termp. 199
Levels of service and local water suppliesp. 199
Water quantity and qualityp. 200
How much water do people need?p. 200
Drinking water qualityp. 201
Water tankeringp. 203
Is tankering necessary and viable?p. 203
Organizing tankeringp. 203
Water distribution with tankersp. 207
Water source developmentp. 211
Water source assessmentp. 211
Surface waterp. 214
Assessment of surface water sourcesp. 214
Abstraction from surface water sourcesp. 214
Small damsp. 218
Sand-storage and sub-surface damsp. 224
Groundwaterp. 226
Groundwater basicsp. 226
Springsp. 229
Wells: location and constructionp. 236
Dug wellsp. 243
Hand drilled and jetted wellsp. 254
Machine drilled boreholesp. 257
Rainwaterp. 283
Roof collectionp. 285
Ground catchmentsp. 286
Water storage, treatment and distributionp. 288
Assessment and planningp. 288
Planning strategyp. 288
Stages in a water supply systemp. 289
Assessment of treatment and storage requirementsp. 291
Operation of a water supply systemp. 293
Water storagep. 294
Principal considerationsp. 294
Rigid and flexible emergency tanksp. 295
Ground tanksp. 297
Water storage packsp. 301
Ferrocement water tanksp. 303
Improvised water towersp. 306
Domestic water storagep. 306
Tank repairsp. 306
Water tanks in freezing conditionsp. 311
Water treatmentp. 314
Pre-treatmentp. 314
Filtrationp. 329
Disinfectionp. 336
Chemical dosing equipmentp. 341
Packaged water treatment plantp. 342
Desalinationp. 344
Water transmission and distributionp. 344
Pipesp. 344
Valves and tapstandsp. 355
Pipeline designp. 357
Pumpsp. 377
Pump types and applicationsp. 377
Pumping head, discharge and powerp. 377
Pump ratings, head and suction liftp. 377
Pump power and efficiencyp. 380
Pump classification and characteristicsp. 381
Centrifugal pumpsp. 382
Generalp. 382
Surface mounted centrifugal pumpp. 385
Electric submersible centrifugal pumpp. 390
Positive displacement pumpsp. 395
Helical rotor pumpsp. 395
Installation and operationp. 395
Lifting water by handp. 400
Selection and operation of pumpsp. 407
General guidelines on pump installation and maintenancep. 407
Selecting and specifying pumpsp. 411
Mechanical plantp. 413
Assessment and planningp. 413
Selection of equipmentp. 413
Operation and maintenancep. 414
Internal combustion (IC) enginesp. 416
Maintenance of internal combustion enginesp. 416
Petrol enginesp. 420
Diesel enginesp. 423
Compressed air plantp. 432
Compressorsp. 432
Compressed air plant for construction workp. 433
Grinding millsp. 435
Belt and shaft drivesp. 435
Electrical plantp. 438
Simple electrical systemsp. 438
A typical electrical installationp. 438
Safetyp. 439
Some basic electrical principlesp. 440
Electrical power generationp. 440
Cabling configurationsp. 443
Electrical power and power factorp. 444
Generatorsp. 444
Basic typesp. 444
Sizing and specifying generatorsp. 445
Installation of generatorsp. 446
Solar powerp. 450
Cablesp. 451
Electrical protectionp. 453
Circuit protectionp. 453
Protection of electrical enclosuresp. 457
Induction motorsp. 458
Sizing motorsp. 458
Induction motor startersp. 459
Operating electric motor driven pumpsp. 463
Vehiclesp. 468
Vehicle selection and specificationp. 468
Sources of vehiclesp. 468
Vehicle selectionp. 468
Vehicle specificationp. 469
Trucksp. 471
Tyresp. 473
Vehicle managementp. 474
Vehicle administrationp. 475
Driversp. 475
Safety and accident proceduresp. 477
Fuel and lubricantsp. 478
Vehicle workshopsp. 482
Workshop requirementsp. 482
Workshop staffp. 483
Spares and storesp. 489
Servicing and maintenancep. 490
Driving techniques and vehicle recoveryp. 492
Driving techniquesp. 492
Vehicle recoveryp. 495
Roads, crossings and airstripsp. 498
Introductionp. 498
Planning improved accessp. 498
Choice and design of roadp. 499
Assessing existing roads and crossingsp. 501
Inspection and inventoryp. 501
Local capacityp. 501
Bridge assessmentp. 503
Design and construction of unpaved roadsp. 506
First considerationsp. 506
Planning road constructionp. 509
Route selection and clearancep. 512
Drainage and erosion controlp. 513
Road building materialsp. 519
Earthworksp. 520
Road repair and maintenancep. 521
Crossingsp. 525
Choice of crossingp. 525
Culvertsp. 527
Fords and driftsp. 528
Small emergency timber bridgesp. 532
Prefabricated modular bridgesp. 536
Floating bridges and causewaysp. 538
Aerial ropewaysp. 541
Airstripsp. 543
Generalp. 543
Temporary airstrip assessment and preparationp. 544
Shelter and built infrastructurep. 546
Shelter in emergenciesp. 546
Shelter optionsp. 546
Blankets and clothingp. 549
Family shelterp. 550
Built infrastructurep. 558
Storage requirementsp. 558
Types of storage facilitiesp. 560
Hospitals, health and feeding centresp. 565
Building constructionp. 565
Materialsp. 565
Concretep. 569
Brick, block and mud wallsp. 576
Mortar and plasterp. 579
Timberp. 580
Building detailsp. 580
Damage assessment and building surveyp. 587
Damage assessmentp. 587
Notes on materialsp. 589
Temporary settlementsp. 593
Introductionp. 593
Preparedness planningp. 593
Self-settlementp. 593
Moving peoplep. 594
Site selectionp. 595
Selection processp. 595
Site selection criteria and weightingsp. 598
Ranking sitesp. 600
Temporary settlement planningp. 600
Key principlesp. 601
The settlement planning processp. 602
Settlement layout and servicesp. 605
Settlement managementp. 612
Appendices
Acronyms and abbreviationsp. 614
Web sitesp. 616
Sphere minimum standardsp. 618
Situation reportp. 625
Contract documentationp. 626
Water well construction contract guidelinesp. 630
Employment contract and job descriptionp. 635
Sanitary survey checklistsp. 637
Discharge measurements and estimatesp. 640
Aquifer properties and well hydraulicsp. 646
Hand augersp. 648
Compressed air tool package for open well constructionp. 650
Pipe and hose specificationsp. 650
Pipe and hose fittingsp. 654
Valvesp. 659
Water flow in pipes--head loss datap. 664
Gabions and mattressesp. 666
Anchoragesp. 669
Sheers and gynsp. 671
Soil classification, identification and testingp. 673
Temporary support of excavationsp. 679
Beam calculationsp. 680
Basic engineering surveying and setting outp. 682
Food and nutritionp. 693
Unit conversion tablesp. 695
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781853395215
ISBN-10: 1853395218
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 738
Published: January 2002
Publisher: ITDG Publishing
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.86 x 15.88  x 3.81
Weight (kg): 1.09
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised