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Energy Transduction in Biological Membranes : Springer Advanced Texts in Chemistry - William A. Cramer

Energy Transduction in Biological Membranes

Springer Advanced Texts in Chemistry

By: William A. Cramer (Editor), David B. Knaff (Editor)

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Energy Transduction in Biological Membranes was primarily designed for graduate courses in bioenergetics. Not only does it discuss basic principles and concepts central to modern membrane biochemistry, biophysics and molecular biology, but also (1) the components and pathways for electron transport and hydrogen ion translocation, and (2) the utilization of electrochemical ion gradients. The book is unique in presenting a comparative treatment of respiratory and photosynthetic energy transduction, and in using protein sequence data coupled with physical concepts to discuss the mechanisms of energy transducing proteins.

I Principles of Bioenergetics.- 1 Thermodynamic Background.- 1.1 Introduction: The First Law of Thermodynamics.- 1.2 Reaction, Direction, Disorder: The Need for the Second Law.- 1.3 On Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics.- 1.4 Maximum Work.- 1.5 Free Energy.- 1.6 Concentration Dependence of the Gibbs Free Energy.- 1.7 Free Energy Change of a Chemical Reaction.- 1.8 Temperature Dependence of Keq.- 1.9 Other Kinds of Work: Electrical, Chemical Work.- 1.10 Thermodynamics of Ion Gradients.- 1.11 Thermodynamics of $$ Delta {tilde mu_{{H^{+} }}} $$-Linked Active Transport.- 1.12 Thermodynamics of $$ Delta {tilde mu_{{H^{+} }}} $$-Linked ATP Synthesis.- 1.13 Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics.- 1.14 "High-Energy" Bonds.- 1.15 Summary.- Problems.- 2 Oxidation-Reduction; Electron and Proton Transfer.- 2.1 Direction of Redox Reactions.- 2.2 The Scale of Oxidation-Reduction Potentials.- 2.3 Oxidation-Reduction Potential as a Group-Transfer Potential; Comparison of Standard Potentials and pK Values.- 2.4 Calculation of the Potential Change for Linked and Coupled Reactions.- 2.5 Concentration Dependence of the Oxidation-Reduction Potential.- 2.6 Experimental Determination of E and Em Values.- 2.7 Factors Affecting the Redox Potential.- 2.8 Redox Properties of Quinones and Semiquinones.- 2.9 Midpoint Potentials of Electrons in Photo-Excited States: Application to Photosynthetic Reaction Centers.- 2.10 Electron Transfer Mechanisms.- 2.11 Proton Transfer Reactions.- 2.12 Summary.- Problems.- 3 Membrane Structure and Storage of Free Energy.- 3.1 Elements of Membrane Structure.- 3.2 Introduction to the Energy Storage Problem.- 3.3 The Chemiosmotic Hypothesis.- 3.4 Measurement of ?pH and ?? Across Energy-Transducing Membranes.- 3.5 Relationship Between ?? and Charge Movement Across the Membrane.- 3.6 Experimental Tests of the Chemiosmotic Hypothesis.- 3.7 A Naturally Occurring Uncoupler: The Uncoupling Protein from Brown Fat Mitochondria.- 3.8 Effect of Uncouplers on Electron Transport Rate.- 3.9 Proton Requirement (H+/ATP) for Reversible ATP Synthase.- 3.10 Storage of Energy in $$ Delta {tilde mu_{{H^{+} }}} $$.- 3.11 Sufficiency of the Chemiosmotic Framework.- 3.12 Appendix. Ionophores.- 3.13 Summary.- Problems.- II Components and Pathways for Electron Transport and H+ Translocation.- 4 Metalloproteins.- 4.1 Heme Proteins, Cytochromes a through d, and o.- 4.2 Occurrence of b Cytochromes.- 4.3 Structure of Cytochrome c.- 4.4 Structure-Function in Mitochondrial Cytochrome c.- 4.5 Residues of Reaction Partners That Are Complementary to Cytochrome c Lysines.- 4.6 Diffusion and Orientability of Cytochrome c.- 4.7 Membrane-Bound c-Type Cytochromes: Cytochromes c1 and f.- 4.8 Copper Proteins: Plastocyanin.- 4.9 Iron-Sulfur Proteins.- 4.10 Membrane-Bound Iron-Sulfur Proteins.- 4.11 The Membrane-Bound FeS-Flavoprotein, Succinate: Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase (Complex II).- 4.12 Summary.- Problems.- 5 The Quinone Connection.- 5.1 Structures, Stoichiometry, Pools, and Branch Points.- 5.2 Reconstitution of Quinone Function Requires Qn with n ? 3.- 5.3 The Quinone Pool Is Located Near the Center of the Membrane Bilayer.- 5.4 The Quinone Connection Across the Center of the Membrane.- 5.5 Quinone Lateral Mobility.- 5.6 The Segregation of Electron Transport Components in Thylakoids Requires Lateral Mobility of Quinone.- 5.7 Quinone-Binding Proteins.- 5.8 Quinone Electron Acceptors in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers.- 5.9 Quinone-Binding Proteins in Photosynthetic Reaction Centers.- 5.10 Summary.- Problems.- 6 Photosynthesis: Photons to Protons.- 6.1 Light Energy Transfer.- 6.2 Use of Energy Transfer as a Spectroscopic Ruler.- 6.3 Light Energy Transfer in Photosynthesis: The Phycobilisome.- 6.4 Structures of Photosynthetic Antenna Pigment-Protein Complexes.- 6.5 Structure of Photosynthetic Reaction Centers.- 6.6 Structure of the Reaction Center Proteins: Transmembrane Charge Separation.- 6.7 Reaction Centers of Plant and Algal PS I and II.- 6.8 Photosynthetic Water Splitting, O2 Evolution, and Proton Release by PS II.- 6.9 The Cyclic and Noncyclic Electron Transfer Chains.- 6.10 Summary.- Problems.- 7 Light and Redox-Linked H+ Translocation: Pumps, Cycles, and Stoichiometry.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Bacteriorhodopsin, a Well-Characterized Light-Driven H+ Pump.- 7.3 Cytochrome Oxidase (Mitochondrial Complex IV) as a Proton Pump.- 7.4 The Q Cycle and H+ Translocation in Complex III and Chloroplast b6f Complexes.- 7.5 H+ Translocation or Deposition Sites in the Mitochondrial, Chromatophore, and Chloroplast Electron Transport Chains; Stoichiometrics of H+ Translocation and ATP Synthesis.- 7.6 Summary.- Problems.- III Utilization of Electrochemical Ion Gradients.- 8 Transduction of Electrochemical Ion Gradients to ATP Synthesis.- 8.1 Introduction to the Structure and Function of the ATP Synthase.- 8.2 Preparation of H+-ATPase.- 8.3 Structure of F0Fl ATP Synthase.- 8.4 DNA Sequence of Unc Operon.- 8.5 Function of the Membrane-Bound Subunits a, b, and c.- 8.6 Mechanism of ATP Synthesis.- 8.7 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Constants for ATP Hydrolysis.- 8.8 Mechanism of Transduction of $$ Delta {tilde mu_{N{a^{+} }}} $$ to ATP.- 8.9 Other Classes of H+-Translocating ATPases.- 8.10 Summary.- Problems.- 9 Active Transport.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Evidence for Protein Carrier-Mediated Transport.- 9.3 Techniques for Studying Transport in Bacteria.- 9.4 Structure of the Cell Envelope of Gram-Negative Bacteria.- 9.5 $$ Delta {tilde mu_{N{a^{+} }}} $$ Formation in Bacteria.- 9.6 Active Transport of Sugars Coupled to H+ Cotransport.- 9.7 Kinetic Studies.- 9.8 Structure/Function Considerations.- 9.9 Amino Acid Transport.- 9.10 Sodium-Dependent Transport.- 9.11 Transport Driven by High-Energy Phosphate Intermediates.- 9.12 Periplasmic Transport Systems.- 9.13 Motility.- 9.14 Active Transport in Eukaryotes.- 9.15 Transport or Translocation of Macromolecules.- 9.16 Summary.- Appendix I Answers to Problems.- Appendix II Physical, Chemical, and Biochemical Constants.- Appendix III Prediction of Protein Folding in Membranes.- References.- Glossary of Abbreviations.

ISBN: 9780387975337
ISBN-10: 0387975330
Series: Springer Advanced Texts in Chemistry
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 579
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.86 x 15.24  x 2.9
Weight (kg): 0.74