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Encyclopedia of Geochemistry : Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series - Clare P. Marshall

Encyclopedia of Geochemistry

Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series

By: Clare P. Marshall (Editor), Rhodes W. Fairbridge (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 31st July 1999
ISBN: 9780412755002
Number Of Pages: 714

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Geochemistry uses the methods and philosophies of chemistry to explore and understand the Earth from the most elementary levels. The field has moved on from a prehistoric interest in metals, chert and clay, to become a modern science, utilizing sophisticated techniques to understand the Earth's processes and evolution. By looking deeply into the Earth's constituents, scientists are able to verify theories on its formation and, by corollary, on the formation of other planets in the universe. Because geochemistry involves intensive, detailed examinations of pieces of the planet, the subject touches upon many aspects of other scientific explorations, such as predicting earth tremors and volcanoes, the origin of life, environmental contamination and waste management, and finding mineral and organic ores. Over 200 international scientists, each experts in their specialties, have written over 340 separate topics on different aspects of geochemistry including organics, trace elements, isotopes, high and low temperature geochemistry and ore deposits, to name just a few. The instruments used to refine geochemical techniques are each described, and the chemical elements have their own separate entries which include common mineralogical, petrological and sedimentological depictions. Each topic incorporates cross-referencing to related articles, and also has its own reference list to lead the reader to articles within the published literature. The entries are arranged alphabetically, for easy access.

Industry Reviews

`[a] complete and authoritative geochemistry desk reference.' Environmental Science and Technology, 34:1 (2000) `This Encyclopedia of Geochemistry has been painstakingly put together over a number of years, and the care and attention to detail has been very worthwhile. Here is a volume that exceptionally compiles basic information, and the details of commonly used techniques, with essays of introduction to different subject areas. Every Library should certainly have a copy, as it will be widely used by students, researchers and teachers alike. ... For all sorts of reasons, more and more people need to understand how the Earth works and this volume is a considerable resourse for those working towards that goal.' Chris J Hawkesworth, Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, UK in Journal of Petrology, 41:12 `The Encyclopedia of Geochemistry is a "keystone" reference source, appreciated not only by all those involved in the various fields of geochemistry, but also by experts and students alike in neighbouring fields of geoscience.' Jorg Matschullat, in Environmental Geology, 39:5 (2000)

List of Contributorsp. xix
Prefacep. xxxiii
Acknowledgementsp. xxxv
Acid Depositionp. 1
Acids and Basesp. 2
Actiniump. 5
Activation Energy, Activation Enthalpy, Activation Volumep. 5
Activity and Activity Coefficientsp. 7
Aluminump. 10
Americium: Element and Geochemistryp. 10
Analysis: Field Methodsp. 11
Analytical Geochemistryp. 12
Analytical Techniquesp. 13
Antimony: Element and Geochemistryp. 15
Aqueous Solutionsp. 16
Argonp. 18
[superscript 40]Ar/[superscript 39]Ar Dating Methodp. 19
Arsenicp. 21
Astatinep. 23
Atomic Absorption Spectrometryp. 23
Atomic Mass Unit, Avogadro Constant and Molep. 23
Atomic Numberp. 25
Authigenesisp. 26
Bariump. 28
Berkeliump. 29
Berylliump. 29
Biogenic Methane and Gas Hydratep. 30
Biogeochemistryp. 31
Biomarker: Aliphaticp. 31
Biomarker: Aromaticp. 33
Biomarker: Assessment of Thermal Maturityp. 36
Biomarker: Coalsp. 39
Biomarker: Higher Plantp. 39
Biomarkers: Lipid. Bacterial Chemical Fossilsp. 40
Biopolymers and Macromoleculesp. 42
Bismuth: Element and Geochemistryp. 43
Black Shales and Sapropelsp. 44
Boronp. 44
Brominep. 49
Cadmiump. 50
Calciump. 51
Calcium Carbonate and the Carbonic Acid Systemp. 51
Californiump. 57
Calorimetryp. 58
Carbonp. 58
Carbon-14 Dating and other Applications in Earth Sciencesp. 59
Carbon Cyclep. 65
Carbon Isotopesp. 67
Carbonate Compensation Depthp. 73
Carbonate Sedimentsp. 73
Ceriump. 75
Cesiump. 76
Chelationp. 76
Chemical Kineticsp. 77
Chlorinep. 80
Chromiump. 81
Clapeyron's Equationp. 82
Clay Membranesp. 83
Clay Minerals: Ion Exchangep. 85
Coal: Organic Petrographyp. 87
Coal: Origin and Diagenesisp. 90
Coal: Types and Characteristicsp. 92
Coal: Vitrinite Reflectance and Maturityp. 96
Cobaltp. 97
Colloidsp. 98
Complexesp. 99
Compound-Specific Isotope Analysisp. 100
Copperp. 101
Cosmic Elemental Abundancesp. 102
Cosmogenic Nuclidesp. 104
Countersp. 108
Critical Pointsp. 110
Crystal Chemistryp. 110
Crystal Field Theoryp. 118
Crystal Growthp. 120
Curium: Element and Geochemistryp. 123
Dating Methodsp. 124
Debye-Huckel Equationp. 124
Diagenesisp. 126
Differential Thermal Analysis and Scanning Calorimetryp. 131
Diffusionp. 133
Dolomite and Dolomitizationp. 140
Dysprosiump. 142
Earth's Atmospherep. 143
Earth's Continental Crustp. 145
Earth's Corep. 151
Earth's Formation and Geochemical Evolutionp. 156
Earth's Mantle Geochemistryp. 162
Earth's Ocean Geochemistryp. 168
Earth's Oceanic Crustp. 179
Eh-pH Relationsp. 183
Einsteiniump. 187
Electrolyte Theoryp. 187
Electron Capturep. 189
Electron Microprobep. 190
Electronegativityp. 191
Elementary Particlesp. 193
Elements: Actinide Seriesp. 195
Elements: Alkali and Alkaline Earthp. 198
Elements: Chalcophilep. 204
Elements: Distributionp. 204
Elements: Halogenp. 207
Elements: Heat-producingp. 208
Elements: High Field Strengthp. 209
Elements: Incompatiblep. 210
Elements: Lanthanide Series, Rare Earthsp. 211
Elements: Large-ion Lithophilep. 214
Elements: Lithophilep. 214
Elements: Metalloidsp. 215
Elements: Noble Gasesp. 216
Elements: Platinum Groupp. 218
Elements: Radioactivep. 219
Elements: Siderophilep. 221
Elements: Tracep. 222
Elements: Transitionp. 223
Enthalpyp. 226
Entropyp. 227
Epigenesisp. 232
Equilibriump. 232
Equilibrium Constantp. 233
Erbiump. 236
Europiump. 236
Experimental Mineralogy and Petrologyp. 237
Exsolutionp. 239
Fermiump. 245
Fick's Lawp. 245
Fission-track Analysisp. 246
Fluid-Rock Interactionp. 248
Fluids in Volcanic and Plutonic Environments: Evidence From Fluid Inclusionsp. 250
Fluorinep. 252
Franciump. 253
Free Energyp. 253
Fugacityp. 256
Gadoliniump. 257
Gallium: Element and Geochemistryp. 257
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GS-MS)p. 259
Gas Source Mass Spectrometryp. 261
Geoavailabilityp. 262
Geochemical Classification of the Elementsp. 263
Geochemical Explorationp. 266
Geochemical Reference Materialsp. 269
Geochemical Tectonicsp. 270
Geochemical Thermodynamicsp. 271
Geochemistryp. 277
Geochemistry: Low-temperaturep. 280
Geochemistry of Sedimentsp. 282
Geochronology and Radioisotopesp. 292
Geologic Time Scalep. 295
Geothermal Systemsp. 298
Geothermometersp. 302
Geothermometry and Geobarometryp. 305
Germanium: Element and Geochemistryp. 307
Gibbs-Duhem Equationp. 308
Goldp. 309
Hafniump. 312
Heliump. 312
Helium Isotopesp. 314
Henry's Lawp. 315
History of Geochemistryp. 315
Holmiump. 322
Hydrocarbonsp. 323
Hydrogenp. 325
Hydrogen Isotopesp. 326
Hydrologic Cyclep. 330
Hydrothermal Alterationp. 331
Hydrothermal Solutionsp. 333
Hypogenep. 337
Indium: Element and Geochemistryp. 339
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)p. 340
Iodinep. 341
Ion Exchange Chromatographyp. 342
Ion Microprobep. 343
Ionic Radiip. 344
Iridiump. 347
Ironp. 348
Isotope Dilutionp. 353
Isotope Fractionationp. 354
Kryptonp. 358
Laboratory Simulations of Oil and Natural Gas Formationp. 359
Lanthanump. 360
Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometryp. 360
Lawrenciump. 362
Leadp. 362
Lead: Stable Isotopesp. 363
Lipids (Eubacteria and Archebacteria)p. 368
Lithium: Element and Geochemistryp. 369
Luminescencep. 370
Lutetiump. 371
Lutetium-Hafnium Decay Systemp. 372
Magmatic Processesp. 373
Magnesiump. 379
Magnetismp. 379
Manganesep. 382
Mass Transferp. 384
Mendeleviump. 387
Mercuryp. 387
Metamorphic Environments: Chemical Mobilityp. 389
Meteoritesp. 395
Micro-Raman Spectroscopyp. 400
Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB)p. 401
Mineral Defectsp. 401
Mineral Genesisp. 404
Mineralogyp. 409
Molybdenump. 411
Mossbauer Spectroscopyp. 413
Natural Gasp. 415
Natural Resourcesp. 416
Neodymiump. 418
Neodymium in Igneous Rocksp. 418
Neodymium in Sedimentary Rocksp. 421
Neonp. 422
Neptunium: Element and Geochemistryp. 423
Neutron Activation Analysisp. 424
Nickelp. 425
Niobiump. 426
Nitrogenp. 426
Nitrogen Cyclep. 428
Nitrogen Isotopesp. 431
Nobeliump. 434
Nucleosynthesisp. 434
Nutrientsp. 437
Occurrence of Organic Faciesp. 439
Oil Seeps and Coastal Bitumensp. 441
Oil Shalesp. 441
Oil-Oil and Oil-Source Rock Correlationp. 442
Oklo Natural Nuclear Reactorp. 444
Onuma Diagramsp. 446
Ore Depositsp. 447
Organic Geochemistryp. 453
Organic Matter in Fossilsp. 456
Organic Matter in Meteoritesp. 458
Organics: Contemporary Degradation and Preservationp. 458
Organics: Sources and Depositional Environmentsp. 460
Osmiump. 461
Oxidation-Reductionp. 462
Oxygenp. 467
Oxygen Isotopesp. 469
Paleo-Sea Surface Temperature Estimations: Organic Geochemistry and Paleoclimatesp. 475
Paleoenvironmentsp. 477
Paleoproductivityp. 479
Paleotemperaturep. 480
Palladiump. 484
Paragenesisp. 485
Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)p. 488
Partition Coefficientsp. 489
Peatp. 490
Periodic Tablep. 491
Petroleump. 494
Petroleum: Hydrothermalp. 497
Petroleum: In-reservoir Biodegradationp. 498
Petroleum: Kinetic Modelingp. 499
Petroleum: Primary Migration (Generation and Expulsion)p. 500
Petroleum: Surface Geochemistryp. 502
Petroleum: Types, Occurrence and Reservesp. 504
Phase Equilibriap. 505
Phosphorusp. 516
Platinump. 516
Plutonium: Environmental Chemistry and Geochemistryp. 517
Polonium: Element and Geochemistryp. 518
Porphyrinsp. 519
Potassiump. 522
Potassium-Argon Dating Methodp. 522
Potassium-Calcium Decay Systemp. 525
Praseodymiump. 526
Precambrian Atmospherep. 526
Precambrian Geochemistryp. 532
Precambrian Organic Matterp. 535
Promethiump. 537
Protactiniump. 537
Quantum Numbersp. 539
Radioactivityp. 540
Radiump. 541
Radonp. 542
Rare Earth Element Tetrad Effectp. 543
Remote Sensingp. 544
Rheniump. 547
Rhenium-Osmium Dating Methodp. 547
Rhodiump. 550
Rock-Eval Pyrolysisp. 551
Rocksp. 554
Rubidium: Element and Geochemistryp. 555
Rubidium-Strontium Methodp. 556
Rutheniump. 561
Samariump. 563
Samarium-Neodymiump. 563
Samplingp. 567
Scandiump. 569
Scanning Electron Microscopep. 569
Sedimentary Fluidsp. 570
Seleniump. 571
Silicon, Silicap. 572
Silver: Element and Geochemistryp. 576
Sodiump. 578
Soilp. 578
Solid Solutionp. 580
Solubilityp. 583
Spectrophotometryp. 587
Stable Isotopesp. 588
Standard Statesp. 592
Steroidal Compoundsp. 593
Stoichiometryp. 595
Strontium: Element and Geochemistryp. 598
Strontium in Igneous Rocksp. 599
Strontium in Sedimentary Rocksp. 600
Sulfate Mineralsp. 603
Sulfate Reductionp. 603
Sulfide Mineralsp. 605
Sulfides in Mafic and Ultramafic Magmasp. 606
Sulfosalt Mineralsp. 607
Sulfurp. 608
Sulfur Cyclep. 608
Sulfur Isotopes in Geochemistryp. 610
Supergenep. 615
Surface Geochemistryp. 616
Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Analysisp. 617
Syngenesisp. 618
Tantalump. 620
Technetium: Environmental Chemistry and Geochemistryp. 621
Telluriump. 621
Terbiump. 622
Thalliump. 622
Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometryp. 623
Thermochemistryp. 624
Thermogravimetryp. 626
Thermoluminescencep. 628
Thixotropyp. 630
Thorium: Element and Geochemistryp. 630
Thuliump. 635
Tinp. 635
Titanium: Element and geochemistryp. 636
Trace Element Partitioning Modelsp. 637
Tritiump. 639
Tungstenp. 639
Uranium: Element and Geochemistryp. 645
Uranium-Lead Thorium-Lead Decay Systemp. 648
Uranium Series Disequilibriap. 650
Van der Waals Forcep. 655
Vanadiump. 656
Volcanic Gasesp. 656
Volcanismp. 658
Waterp. 660
Water: Freshp. 667
Weathering: Chemicalp. 668
X-Ray Diffractionp. 670
X-Ray Fluorescence Analysisp. 670
Xenonp. 671
Ytterbiump. 673
Yttriump. 673
Zincp. 674
Zirconium: Element and Geochemistryp. 675
List of entries by subjectp. 676
Alphabetical list of the chemical elements (up to 103)p. 680
The international system of unitsp. 682
Index of authors citedp. 685
Subject indexp. 703
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780412755002
ISBN-10: 0412755009
Series: Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 714
Published: 31st July 1999
Publisher: Chapman and Hall
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 29.6 x 21.0  x 4.57
Weight (kg): 2.04

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