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EMATs for Science and Industry : Noncontacting Ultrasonic Measurements - Masahiko Hirao

EMATs for Science and Industry

Noncontacting Ultrasonic Measurements

Hardcover Published: 30th September 2003
ISBN: 9781402074943
Number Of Pages: 372

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EMATs for Science and Industry comprises the physical principles of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) and the applications to scientific and industrial ultrasonic measurements on materials. The text is arranged in four parts:
-PART I is intended to be a self-contained description of the basic elements of coupling mechanism along with practical designing of EMATs for various purposes. There are several implementations to compensate for the low transfer efficiency of the EMATs. Useful tips to make an EMAT are also presented.
-PART II describes the principle of electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR), which makes the most of contactless nature of EMATs and is the most successful amplification mechanism for precise velocity and attenuation measurements.
-PART III applies EMAR to studying the physical acoustics. New measurements emerged on three major subjects; in situ monitoring of dislocation behavior, determination of anisotropic elastic constants, and acoustic nonlinearity evolution.
-PART IV deals with a variety of individual topics encountered in industrial applications, for which the EMATs are believed to the best solutions.

The authors' work in this area has shown Electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR) to be applicable not only to the acoustoelastic stress measurements, but also to many other nondestructive evaluation issues, including the determination of attenuation in solids. Noncontact measurement with high enough signal intensity was striking. Basic preconditions of theoretical approaches were realized by eliminating artifacts caused by the contact transducers. EMAR thus illuminated antiquated theories, which were accepted to be of little use or limited to qualitative interpretation of observations. It also uncovered interesting phenomena. Continuous monitoring of attenuation and acoustic nonlinearity resulted in the detection of ongoing microstructure evolutions in deforming or fatiguing metals.

The aim of this book is to provide practical answers to the needs of ultrasonic measurements as well as an understanding of a novel methodology.

Preface
Introduction: Noncontact Ultrasonic Measurements
Brief Historical Sketch of EMAT
Electromagnetic Acoustic Resonance
EMAR
Development of EMAT Techniques
Coupling Mechanism
Background
Generation Mechanism
Receiving Mechanisms
Comparison with Measurements
Available EMATS
Bulk-Wave EMATs
Longitudinal-Guided-Wave EMAT for Wires and Pipes
PPM EMAT
Meander-Line Coil SH-Wave EMAT
SH-Wave EMAT for Chirp Pulse Compression
Axial-Shear-Wave EMAT
SH-Wave EMAT for Resonance in Bolt Head
Rayleigh-Wave EMAT
Line-Focusing EMAT
Trapped-Torsional-Mode EMAT
EMATs for High Temperature Measurements
Brief Instruction To Build EMATs
Coil
Magnets
Impedance Matching
Resonance Spectroscopy with EMATs -EMAR
Principles of EMAR for Spectral Response
Through-Thickness Resonance
Spectroscopy with Analog Superheterodyne Processing
Determination of Resonance Frequency and Phase Angle
Free-Decay Measurement For Attenuation And Internal Friction
Difficulty of Attenuation Measurement
Isolation of Ultrasonic Attenuation
Measurement of Attenuation Coefficient
Correction for Diffraction Loss
Comparison with Conventional Technique
Physical-Acoustics Studies
In-Situ Monitoring Of Dislocation Mobility
Dislocation-Damping Model for Low Frequencies
Elasto-Plastic Deformation in Copper
Point-Defect Diffusion toward Dislocations in Deformed Aluminum
Dislocation Damping after Elastic Deformation in Al-Zn Alloy
Recovery and Recrystallization in Aluminum
Elastic Constants and Internal Friction of Advanced Materials
Mode Control in Resonance Ultrasound Spectroscopy by EMAR
Inverse Calculation for Cij and Qij-1
Monocrystal Copper
Metal-Matrix Composites (SiCf/Ti-6Al-4V)
Lotus-Type Porous Copper
Ni-Base Superalloys
Thin Films
Piezoelectric Material (Langasite: La3Ga5SiO14)
Nonlinear Acoustics
Industrial Applications
On-Line Texture Monitoring Of Steel Sheets
Texture of Polycrystalline Metals
Mathematical Expressions of Texture and Velocity Anisotropy
Relation between ODCs and r-Values
On-Line Monitoring with Magnetostrictive-Type EMATs
Acoustoelastic Stress Measurements
Nonlinear Elasticity
Acoustoelastic Response of Solids
Birefringence Acoustoelasticity
Practical Stress Measurements with EMAR
Monitoring Bolt Axial Stress
Measurements On High-Temperature Steels
Velocity Variation at High Temperatures
Solidification-Shell Thickness of Continuous Casting Slabs
Wall Thickness of Hot Seamless Steel Tubes
Measurement Of Induction-Hardening Depth
Sensing Modified Surface Layers
Axial-Shear-Wave Resonance
Linear Perturbation Scheme
Inverse Evaluation of Case Depth
Detection Of Flaw And Corrosion
Crack Inspection of Railroad Wheels
Gas-Pipeline Inspection
Line-Focusing EMAT for Detecting Slit Defects
Average Grain Size Of Steels
Scattering of Ultrasonic Waves by Grains
Fourth-Power Law
Steel Specimens and Grain-Size Distribution
Grain-Size Evaluation
Remaining-Life Assessment Of Fatigued Metals
Fatigue and Ultrasonic Measurements
Zero-to-Tension Fatigue of Copper
Rotating-Bending Fatigue of Low-Carbon Steels
Tension-Compression Fatigue of Low-Carbon Steels
Creep Damage Detection Of Steels
Aging of Metals
Creep and Dislocation Damping
Interrelation with Microstructure
References
Index
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781402074943
ISBN-10: 1402074948
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 372
Published: 30th September 2003
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 3.05
Weight (kg): 0.7

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