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Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior : Volume 40 - Viacheslav V. Spichak

Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior

Volume 40


Published: 14th November 2006
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Based on lectures given in the First Russian School-Seminar on electromagnetic soundings of the Earth held in Moscow on 15th November, 2003, this book acquaints scientists and technologists with the latest achievements in theory, techniques and practical applications of the methods of electromagnetic sounding. This three part text covers the methods considered for Earth electromagnetic sounding on a global, regional, and local scale; modern methods for solving forward and inverse problems of geoelectrics, particularily contemporary approaches to the EM data modeling and interpretation in the class of three-dimensional models; and the results of regional EM on-land and sea soundings
*Presents theoretical and methodological findings, as well as examples of applications of recently developed algorithms and software in solving practical problems
*Describes the practical importance of electromagnetic data through enabling discussions on a construction of a closed technological cycle, processing, analysis and three-dimensional interpretation
*Updates current findings in the field, especially with MT, magnetovariational and seismo-electriccal methods and the practice of 3D interpretaions

Prefacep. xiii
EM Sounding Methods
Global 3-D EM Induction in the Solid Earth and the Oceans
Forward Problem Formulationp. 4
Basic 3-D Earth Conductivity Modelp. 5
Ocean Effect in S[subscrpit q] Variationsp. 7
Ocean Effect of Geomagnetic Stormsp. 9
Magnetic Fields due to Ocean Tidesp. 13
Magnetic Fields due to Ocean Circulationp. 16
Mapping Conductivity Anomalies in the Earth's Mantle from Spacep. 18
Conclusionsp. 21
Referencesp. 21
Magnetovariational Method in Deep Geoelectrics
Introductionp. 27
On Integrated Interpretation of MV and MT Datap. 30
Model Experimentsp. 33
MV-MT Study of the Cascadian Subduction Zone (EMSLAB Experiment)p. 38
Referencesp. 51
Shallow Investigations by TEM-FAST Technique: Methodology and Examples
Introductionp. 55
Advantages of TEM in Shallow Depth Studiesp. 56
On the TEM-FAST Technologyp. 57
Transformation of E(t) Data into p(h)p. 59
One-Dimensional Inversion and TEM-FAST's Resolutionp. 61
Joint Inversion of TEM and DC Soundingsp. 63
Side Effects in TEM Soundingp. 67
Superparamagnetic Effect in TEMp. 68
Effect of Induced Polarizationp. 71
Antenna Polarization Effect (APE)p. 73
Referencesp. 76
Seismoelectric Methods of Earth Study
Seismoelectric Effect of the First Kindp. 79
Seismoelectric Effect of the Second Kind: Historical Outline and Elements of Theoryp. 80
Physical Interpretation of Seismoelectric Phenomenap. 83
Modeling of Seismoelectric Fieldsp. 86
Laboratory Studies of Seismoelectric Effects on Rock Samplesp. 90
Experimental Field and Borehole Seismoelectric Studiesp. 96
Referencesp. 100
Forward Modeling and Inversion Techniques
3-D EM Forward Modeling Using Balance Technique
Modern Approaches to the Forward Problem Solutionp. 106
Methods of Integral Equationsp. 106
The method of volume integral equations (VIE)p. 107
The method of surface integral equationsp. 108
Methods of Differential Equationsp. 109
The FD techniquep. 109
The FE techniquep. 111
Mixed Approachesp. 112
Analog (Physical) Modeling Approachesp. 114
Balance Method of EM Fields Computation in Models with Arbitrary Conductivity Distributionp. 116
Statement of the Problemp. 116
Calculation of the Electric Fieldp. 117
Equations and boundary conditionsp. 117
Discretization schemep. 118
Calculation of the Magnetic Fieldp. 120
Controlling the Accuracy of the Resultsp. 121
Criteria for accuracyp. 121
Comparison with high-frequency asymptotic solutionp. 122
Comparison with results obtained by other techniquesp. 123
Method of the EM Field Computation in Axially Symmetric Mediap. 124
Problem Statementp. 124
Basic Equationsp. 125
Boundary Conditionsp. 127
Discrete Equations and their Numerical Solutionp. 127
Discrete equationsp. 127
Basis functionsp. 129
Numerical solution of discrete equationsp. 129
Code Testingp. 131
Referencesp. 134
3-D EM Forward Modeling Using Integral Equations
Introductionp. 143
Volume Integral Equation Methodp. 144
Traditional IE Methodp. 145
Comparison with other methodsp. 146
Straightforward solutionp. 146
Neumann seriesp. 146
Modified Iterative Dissipative Methodp. 147
Krylov subspace interationp. 149
Model Examplesp. 151
Induction Logging Problemp. 151
Airborne EM Examplep. 152
Conclusionp. 152
Referencesp. 152
Inverse Problems in Modern Magnetotellurics
Three Features of Multi-Dimensional Inverse Problemp. 159
Normal Backgroundp. 159
On Detailness of Multi-Dimensional Inversionp. 162
On Redundancy of Observation Datap. 162
Three Questions of Hadamardp. 163
On the Existence of a Solution to the Inverse Problemp. 164
On the Uniqueness of the Solution to the Inverse Problemp. 164
On the Instability of the Inverse Problemp. 172
MT and MV Inversions in the Light of Tikhonov's Theory of Ill-Posed Problemsp. 175
Conditionally Well-Posed Formulation of Inverse Problemp. 175
Optimization Methodp. 177
Regularization Methodp. 178
Referencesp. 183
Joint Robust Inversion of Magnetotelluric and Magnetovariational Data
Adaptive Parameterization of a Geoelectric Modelp. 186
A Background Structure and Windows to Scan Anomaliesp. 186
A Priori Model Structure and Constrainsp. 186
Window with Correlated Resistivities of Inversion Cellsp. 187
Window with Finite Functionsp. 187
Inverted and Modeling Datap. 188
Inversion as a Minimization Problemp. 190
Minimizing Functionalp. 190
Robust Misfit Metricp. 191
Cycles of Tikhonov's Minimizationp. 92
Newtonian Minimization Techniquesp. 192
Solution of Linear Newtonian System and Choice of Scalar Newtonian Stepp. 194
Multi-Level Adaptive Stabilizationp. 195
Post-Inversion Analysisp. 196
Study of Inversion Algorithms using Synthetic Datasetsp. 197
Comparison of Three Model Parameterization Schemes in 2-D Inversionp. 197
2-D Inversion with Numerous Finite Functionsp. 205
3-D Inversion Examplep. 209
Resolution of a System of Local Conductors using the CR-Parameterizationp. 211
Reduction of Strong Data Noise and Static Shiftsp. 213
Conclusionsp. 215
Referencesp. 216
Neural Network Reconstruction of Macro-Parameters of 3-D Geoelectric Structures
BackPropagation Techniquep. 220
Creation of Teaching and Testing Data Poolsp. 223
Effect of the EM Data Transformations on the Quality of the Parameters' Recognitionp. 224
Types of the Activation Function at Hidden and Output Layersp. 225
Number of the Neurons in a Hidden Layerp. 227
Effect of an Extra Hidden Layerp. 229
Threshold Levelp. 229
Effect of the Input Data Typep. 229
Effect of the Volume and Structure of the Training Data Poolp. 232
Effect of Sizep. 232
Effect of Structurep. 233
Random selection of synthetic data samplep. 234
Gaps in the training data basep. 234
"No target" casep. 236
Extrapolation Ability of ANNp. 238
Noise Treatmentp. 239
Case History: ANN Reconstruction of the Minou Fault Parametersp. 242
Geological and Geophysical Settingp. 242
CSAMT Data Acquisition and Processingp. 243
3-D Imaging Minou Fault Zone using 1-D and 2-D Inversionp. 245
Synthesis of Bostick transformsp. 245
2-D inversion resultsp. 246
ANN Reconstruction of the Minou Geoelectric Structurep. 247
ANN recognition in terms of macro-parametersp. 250
Testing ANN inversion resultsp. 251
Discussion and Conclusionsp. 252
Referencesp. 253
Data Processing, Analysis, Modeling and Interpretation
Arrays of Simultaneous Electromagnetic Soundings: Design, Data Processing and Analysis
Simultaneous Systems for Natural EM Fields Observationp. 259
Multi-Site Schemes for Estimation of Transfer Operatorsp. 262
Temporal Stability of Transfer Operatorsp. 264
Methods for the Analysis and Interpretation of Simultaneous EM Datap. 266
Conclusionsp. 270
Referencesp. 271
Magnetotelluric Field Transformations and their Application in Interpretation
Linear Relations between MT Field Componentsp. 276
Point Transforms of MT Datap. 277
Impedance Transformsp. 277
Apparent Resistivity Type Transformsp. 285
Induction and Perturbation Vectorsp. 287
Examples of the Use of MT Field Point Transforms for the Interpretationp. 291
Dimensionality Indicatorsp. 291
Local and Regional Anomaliesp. 292
Constructing Resistivity Images in the Absence of Prior Informationp. 293
Integral Transformsp. 298
Division of the MT Field into Partsp. 298
Transformation of the Field Components into Each Otherp. 302
Synthesis of Synchronous MT field from Impedances and Induction Vectorsp. 303
Magnetic field synthesis from know impedancep. 304
Magnetic field synthesis from known tipperp. 304
Referencesp. 305
Modeling of Magnetotelluric Fields in 3-D Media
A Feasibility Study of MT Method Application in Hydrocarbon Explorationp. 314
Statement of the Problemp. 315
Numerical Modelingp. 315
Testing Hypotheses of the Geoelectric Structure of the Transcaucasian Region from MT Datap. 321
Geological and Geophysical Characteristics of the Regionp. 321
Alternative Conductivity Modelsp. 324
Numerical Modeling of Magnetotelluric Fieldsp. 325
Conclusionsp. 330
MT Imaging Internal Structure of Volcanoesp. 331
Simplified Model of the Volcanop. 331
Synthetic MT Pseudosectionsp. 332
Methodology of Interpretation of the MT Data Measured over the Relief Surfacep. 335
Simulation of MT Monitoring of the Magma Chamber Conductivityp. 338
Geoelectric Model of a Central Type Volcanop. 338
Detection of the Magma Chamber by MT Datap. 338
Estimation of MT Data Resolving Power with Respect to the Conductivity Variations in the Magma Chamberp. 340
"Guidelines" for MT Monitoring Electric Conductivity in a Magma Chamberp. 343
Simulation of MT Monitoring the Ground Water Salinityp. 344
Statement of the Problemp. 344
The datap. 346
Prior informationp. 346
Modeling of the Salt Water Intrusion Zone Mapping by Audio-MT Datap. 347
Referencesp. 348
Regional Magnetotelluric Explorations in Russia
Introductionp. 351
Observation Technologyp. 353
MT-Data Processing, Analysis and Interpretationp. 354
Case Historiesp. 356
East-European Cratonp. 356
Caucasus, the Urals, Siberia, and North East Russiap. 360
Conclusionp. 366
Referencesp. 366
EM Studies at Seas and Oceans
Conductivity Structure of Sea and Ocean Floorp. 370
Background Conductivity Structure of the Ocean Crust and Upper Mantlep. 370
Principle Objectives of Marine EM Studiesp. 370
Instrumentation for Marine EM Studiesp. 371
Seafloor Controlled Source Frequency and Transient EM Soundingp. 371
Measurements of Variations of Natural EM Fields on the Seafloorp. 373
Some Results of EM Sounding in Seas and Oceansp. 375
Studies of Gas Hydrates in Seabed Sediments of Continental Slopesp. 376
Studies of Buried Salt Dome-like Structuresp. 377
The Reykjanes Axial Melt Experiment: Structural Synthesis from Electromagnetics and Seismics (RAMESSES Project)p. 377
Seafloor MT Soundings of the Eastern-Pacific Rise at 9[degree 0] 50[prime] Np. 378
Mantle Electromagnetic and Tomography Experimentp. 379
Deep Seafloor EM Studies in the Northwestern Pacificp. 380
Referencesp. 382
Subject Indexp. 385
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780444529381
ISBN-10: 0444529381
Series: Methods in Geochemistry and Geophysics
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 404
Published: 14th November 2006
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.0 x 16.5  x 2.16
Weight (kg): 0.88