This monograph covers the rapidly developing field of electrochemical supercapacitors capable of exhibiting many Farads of capacitance per gram of active materials.The volume is aimed at a broad spectrum of scientists and technologists, including electrochemists, chemists, electrochemical and electrical engineers, and materials scientists. Hence the book is self-contained, starting with introductory chapters on the double-layer at interfaces, principles of electrode-process kinetics, and of electrostatics required in the treatment of double-layers and ion solvation, and elements of the theory of dielectrics.The main body of the material is concerned with procedures for characterizing the behavior and performance of electrochemical capacitors. Similarities and differences between electrochemical capacitors and batteries are treated in some detail, together with applications of both small and large capacitance units such as computer memory back-up and hybrid battery-capacitor systems for electric-vehicle drive-trains.A section is included on the practically important and scientifically interesting topic of self-discharge of capacitors and batteries, and the mechanisms that can be involved in that phenomenon. The work concludes with an up-to-date technology survey and a summary of recent and earlier patents in the field.
`It is an excellent resource in that it provides a very comprehensive and in depth coverage of supercapacitor technology.'
IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, 18:2 (2002)
1. Introduction and Historical Perspective. 2. Similarities and Differences between Supercapacitors and Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage. 3. Energetics and Elements of Kinetics of Electrode Processes. 4. Elements of Electrostatics Involved in Treatment of Double-Layers and Ions at Capacitors Electrode Interfaces. 5. Behavior of Dielectrics in Capacitors and Theories of Dielectric Polarization. 6. The Double-Layer at Capacitor Electrode Interfaces: Its Structure and Capacitance. 7. Theoretical Treatment and Modeling of the Double-Layer at Electrode Interfaces. 8. Behavior of the Double-Layer in Non-Aqueous Electrolytes and Non-Aqueous Electrolyte Capacitors. 9. The Double-Layer and Surface Functionalities at Carbon. 10. Electrochemical Capacitors Based on Pseudocapacitance. 11. The Electrochemical Behavior of Ruthenium Oxide (RuO2) as a Material for Electrochemical Capacitors. 12. Capacitance Behavior of Films Conducting, Electrochemically Reactive Polymers. 13. The Electrolyte Factor in Supercapacitor Design and Performance: Conductivity, Ion-Pairing and Solvation. 14. Electrochemical Behavior at Porous Electrodes; Applications to Capacitors. 15. Energy-Density and Power-Density of Electrical Energy Storage Devices. 16. AC Impedance Behavior of Electrochemical Capacitors and Other Electrochemical Systems. 17. Treatments of Impedance Behavior of Various Circuits and Modeling of Double-Layer Capacitor Frequency Response. 18. Self-Discharge of Electrochemical Capacitors in Relation to that of at Batteries. 19. Technology Development. 20. Patent Survey.