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Electro-optical Systems Performance Modeling : Optoelectronics Library S. - Gary Waldman

Electro-optical Systems Performance Modeling

Optoelectronics Library S.

Hardcover

Published: 19th August 1992
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This book demonstrates how to model the entire target acquisition process using either visible or infrared imaging systems. Beginning with an overview on electro-optical system design, the text introduces the complexity of various design considerations. A discussion of the differing types of visible and infrared sensors outlines basic wavelength issues and provides definitions of baseline hardware solutions.

Prefacep. xiii
Introduction and Overviewp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Why the Emphasis on Electro-Optical System Engineering?p. 2
Understanding the True Requirementsp. 4
Understanding the Implied Variablesp. 7
Modeling Philosophyp. 10
Spatial versus Frequency Domain Analysisp. 12
Parametric Analysis Modeling versus Synthetic Video Representationp. 13
Overview of the Bookp. 14
Referencesp. 14
Qualitative Discussion of Sensorsp. 15
Wavelength Issuesp. 15
Why the Choice of Various Spectral Bands?p. 18
Resolutionp. 21
TV Sensorsp. 22
Telescopic Sightp. 25
IR Sensing Systemsp. 27
Basic FLIR Descriptionsp. 28
Serial Scanned, Standard Video Devicesp. 31
Parallel Scanned, Parallel Video Systemp. 33
Parallel Scanned, Standard Video Devicesp. 35
Staring Arraysp. 35
Current Tactical Imaging Systemsp. 36
FLIR Componentsp. 37
Cryogenicsp. 37
Detectorsp. 39
Advances in Detectors and Applicationsp. 44
A Look into the Futurep. 45
Referencep. 45
Sources and Transfer of Radiationp. 47
Radiometric and Photometric Quantitiesp. 47
Physical Laws of Radiometryp. 48
Planck's Lawp. 48
Wien's Displacement Lawp. 49
Stefan-Boltzmann Lawp. 49
Kirchhoff's Lawp. 50
Lambert's Lawp. 51
Calculation Aids and Data Sourcesp. 53
The Geometry of Radiative Transferp. 54
Sources in Naturep. 56
Targets and Backgroundsp. 65
Blackbodies, Graybodies, and Realityp. 65
Targetsp. 66
Backgroundsp. 67
Terrain Backgroundsp. 67
Marine Backgroundsp. 69
Sky Backgroundsp. 70
Uniform and Nonuniform Scenesp. 71
Faceted Targetsp. 72
Background Statisticsp. 74
Clutterp. 76
Referencesp. 78
Atmosphericsp. 81
Basic Processesp. 81
Extinctionp. 81
Scatteringp. 83
Absorptionp. 86
Emissionp. 86
Turbulencep. 88
Computational Methodsp. 88
A Simple Visible Algorithmp. 88
Contrastp. 88
Visibilityp. 92
Uvtranp. 93
Empirical Method for IR Extinctionp. 93
Empirical IR Absorptionp. 95
Empirical IR Scatteringp. 97
Example of Empirical Methodp. 98
Lowtranp. 99
Prediction Chartsp. 100
Laser Wavelengthsp. 101
Hitran and Fascodep. 102
Eosaelp. 102
Precipitationp. 102
Rainp. 102
Snowp. 104
Turbulencep. 105
Overview of Atmospheric Modelingp. 106
Referencesp. 108
System Modelingp. 109
Overviewp. 109
Linear Systemsp. 110
Dirac Delta Functionsp. 113
Fourier Transformp. 118
Extensions to TV and FLIR Analysisp. 120
Frequently Used Functions and Useful Fourier Transform Pairsp. 122
Opticsp. 123
Perfect Imaging Systemsp. 124
Magnificationp. 124
Effective Focal Lengthp. 125
Principal Planesp. 126
Ray Tracingp. 127
Stops and Pupilsp. 129
Conjugate Relationsp. 131
Field of Viewp. 132
Vignettingp. 133
Image Radiometryp. 133
Diffractionp. 136
Aberrationsp. 137
Optical Transfer Functionp. 137
Diffraction-Limited Imagingp. 138
Imaging with Aberrationsp. 139
Afocal or Telescopic Systemsp. 141
Electronicsp. 143
FLIR Scannersp. 144
Type of Scannersp. 145
Scanning Techniquesp. 145
Scan Patternsp. 145
Scanning Parameters and Signal-to-Noise Ratiop. 147
Dead Time Relationshipsp. 148
Variable Scan Velocityp. 148
Overlap (or Overscan) Relationshipsp. 148
Shading Effectsp. 149
Summary of Scanning Mechanisms and Techniquesp. 150
Detectorsp. 150
Optical Detectorsp. 151
IR Detectorsp. 154
Common Detector Arrangementsp. 157
MTF of a Sensor Using the SPRITE Detectorp. 157
Signal Processingp. 158
ac Couplingp. 159
dc Restorationp. 161
Time Delay and Integrationp. 161
Electronics MTFp. 162
High-Pass Filterp. 162
Low-Pass Filterp. 162
All-Pass Leadp. 164
Boosting Circuitsp. 164
Displaysp. 164
LEDp. 165
CRTp. 166
Transfer Characteristicsp. 166
Image Sizep. 169
Resolutionp. 170
System Magnificationp. 172
Summary Performance Measuresp. 173
MTFp. 173
TV-Limiting Resolutionp. 174
Noise-Equivalent Temperature Differencep. 175
Minimum Resolvable Temperature Differencep. 176
Minimum Detectable Temperature Differencep. 179
Referencesp. 180
The Human Observerp. 181
Basics of Visionp. 182
Anatomy of the Eyep. 182
Foveal Visionp. 183
Acquisition of Targetsp. 186
Contrast Thresholdp. 188
Johnson's Criteriap. 190
Display Signal-to-Noise Ratiop. 192
Searchp. 194
Motionp. 194
Acquisition Modelsp. 195
Probability of Acquisitionp. 195
Early Modelsp. 197
MARSAMp. 197
SRI LLLTV Modelp. 200
Bailey-Rand Modelp. 200
C2NVEO Modelsp. 202
Spatial Domain Empirical Modelp. 203
Referencesp. 204
End-to-End Modelsp. 207
Introduction and Overviewp. 207
Models to 1975p. 208
SRI LLLTV Modelp. 208
MARSAM FLIR Modelp. 211
Bailey-Rand Modelp. 213
The GAVID Modelp. 216
Night Vision Lab Suitep. 218
NVL Static Performance (Ratches) Modelp. 218
Image Intensifier Performance Modelp. 220
FLIR90p. 222
Other Contemporary Modelsp. 223
VOMp. 223
TTIMp. 225
The PHIND Modelp. 227
VISDET and IRDETp. 230
VISDETp. 231
IRDETp. 233
Conclusionp. 235
Referencesp. 235
Indexp. 237
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780890065419
ISBN-10: 0890065411
Series: Optoelectronics Library S.
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 256
Published: 19th August 1992
Publisher: Artech House Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 1.9
Weight (kg): 0.55