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Ecosystem Organization of a Complex Landscape : Long-Term Research in the Bornhoeved Lake District, Germany - Otto Franzle

Ecosystem Organization of a Complex Landscape

Long-Term Research in the Bornhoeved Lake District, Germany

By: Otto Franzle (Editor), Ludger Kappen (Editor), Hans-Peter Blume (Editor), Klaus Dierssen (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 1st May 2008
ISBN: 9783540758105
Number Of Pages: 392

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This volume is an essential text for scientists from a huge variety of disciplines, from ecologists to geographers and soil scientists. It provides a synthesis of long-term ecological analyses in the Bornhoeved Lake District of northern Germany. The emphasis is on the comprehensive assessment of matter and energy fluxes. These operate in and between the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems on the one hand, and on transdisciplinary landscape planning approaches on the other.

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"Dieser Band fasst die wesentlichen Ergebnisse eines der grossen OEkosystemforschungsprojekte Deutschlands zusammen, an dem 12 Jahre lang zahlreiche Wissenschaftler unterschiedlichster Disziplinen uberwiegend von der Universitat Kiel beteiligt waren. ... Insgesamt konnten fast 2.000 Arten aus den untersuchten Gruppen in den vier betrachteten Hauptlebensraumen ... nachgewiesen werden. Der Band wird durch ein ausserst umfangreiches Literaturverzeichnis ... und einen Index abgerundet, der das schnelle Auffinden der gesuchten Information erleichtert ..." (Jurgen Dengler, in: Kieler Notizen zur Pflanzenkunde, 2009, Vol. 33, Issue 2, S. 134)

Research Programme and Study Area
General Concept of the Research Programme and Methodology of Investigationsp. 3
Introductionp. 3
History and General Concept of the Research Programmep. 3
Conceptual Background and Organizational Frameworkp. 3
Selection of Representative Study Areas and Sitesp. 5
General and Specific Research Objectives of the Bornhoved Projectp. 7
Plan of Researchp. 10
Organizational Structure of the Projectp. 11
Methodology of Investigationsp. 13
Instruments and Methods of Meteorological and Hydrological Observationsp. 15
Soil Surveys and Analysesp. 18
Biocoenotic Investigationsp. 19
Element Fluxes in Air, Water and the Soil-Vegetation Complexp. 22
Ecological Modellingp. 24
Ecological Setting of the Study Areap. 29
Introductionp. 29
Geological Settingp. 29
Rocks and Relief Featuresp. 29
Climatep. 30
Soil Patternp. 32
Drainage Systemsp. 33
Vegetationp. 40
Development and Socio-Economic Structure of the Cultural Landscapep. 42
Site and Community Characteristics in Catenary Analysisp. 44
Beech Forestp. 45
Mixed Forestp. 48
Alder Carrsp. 50
Agroecosystemsp. 51
Grassland without Groundwater Contactp. 53
Grassland with Groundwater Contactp. 54
Hedgerowsp. 55
Reed Swampsp. 56
Structure and Function of Ecosystems in a Complex Landscape
Ecophysiological Key Processes in Agricultural and Forest Ecosystemsp. 61
Introductionp. 61
Control of Carbon Inputp. 62
Leaf Gas Exchangep. 62
Upscaling to Canopy Levelp. 69
Partitioning of Carbonp. 69
Respiration as Carbon Loss from the Systemp. 71
Decomposition and Mineralization of Organic Cp. 73
Structure and Activity of Soil Microbiotap. 73
Discussionp. 78
Conclusionsp. 80
Carbon and Energy Balances of Different Ecosystems and Ecosystem Complexes of the Bornhoved Lake Districtp. 83
Introductionp. 83
Carbon and Energy Fluxes and Balances at the Ecosystem Scalep. 83
Abiotic Ecosystem Energy Balancesp. 83
Carbon Fixation, Primary Production and Biological Energy Consumptionp. 85
Soil Carbon Balancesp. 85
Net Ecosystem Carbon Balancesp. 90
Extended Energy Balances at the Patch Scalep. 90
Farm Gate Balancesp. 92
Energy Fluxes at the Landscape Scalep. 95
Conclusionsp. 98
Water Relations at Different Scalesp. 101
Introductionp. 101
Water Relations at the Plant Leaf Scalep. 101
Diurnal Course of Leaf Water Relationsp. 102
Dependence of Leaf Conductance and Transpiration on Irradiance and Saturation Deficitp. 105
Interrelations between Leaf Water Potential, Leaf Conductance and Transpirationp. 106
Acclimation of Leaves to Environmental Conditionsp. 107
Measurement and Parameterization of Interception and Soil Evaporationp. 107
Water Turnover at the Stand Levelp. 109
Evaporation and Advective Energy Supplyp. 112
Comparison of Water Vapour Flux Measurements with Different Modelling Approachesp. 114
Conclusionsp. 117
Site-Related Biocoenotic Dynamicsp. 119
Introductionp. 119
Vertical Distribution Patterns of Fauna and Microbiota in Beech and Alder Standsp. 120
Vertical Stratification in the Soil Layerp. 120
Vertical Stratification of Animals in the Vegetation Coverp. 120
Spatial Patterns of Microbiota, Vegetation and Fauna in Beech Forestp. 124
Microbiota and Decompositionp. 124
Vegetationp. 125
Faunap. 128
Seasonal Dynamicsp. 131
Seasonal Changes in the Animal Communityp. 131
Seasonal Change of Habitatsp. 134
Seasonal Changes of Food Resourcesp. 135
Long-Term Dynamicsp. 138
Effects of Climatic Changep. 138
Influence of Temperature on the Generation Cyclep. 140
Succession from Grassland to Alder Carrsp. 140
Changes during Decomposition Processesp. 142
Conclusionsp. 145
Biocoenotic Interactions between Different Ecotopesp. 147
Introductionp. 147
Interactions between Different Ecosystemsp. 148
Interactions between Terrestrial Ecosystemsp. 148
Interactions between Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystemsp. 153
Interactions within Aquatic Systemsp. 154
Modelling Species Interactions between Habitatsp. 161
Modelling Interactions between Terrestrial Habitatsp. 161
Modelling Interactions between Aquatic Habitatsp. 164
Conclusionsp. 167
Element Fluxes in Atmosphere, Vegetation and Soilp. 169
Introductionp. 169
Atmospheric Deposition and Leaching Processes of the Vegetation Coverp. 169
Medium-Scale Deposition Patterns of the Study Areap. 169
Small-Scale Atmospheric Deposition, Canopy Throughfall and Litterfall of Beech Standsp. 170
Element Cadasters and Nutrient Fluxes in Arenic Umbrisols of Beech Stands and Eutri-Cambic Arenosols of Arable Landp. 176
Element Cadasters of Soilsp. 176
Bacterial Populations and Degradation of Soil Organic Matterp. 177
Annual Course of Element Concentrations in Field Eutri-Brunic Arenosols and Forest Arenic Umbrisolsp. 179
Long-Term Element Budgets of Forest Arenic Umbrisols and Eutri-Brunic Arenosols under Tillagep. 187
Nutrient Fluxes in Alder Stands and Wetlandsp. 190
Elemental Concentrations in Alder Standsp. 190
Nitrogen Budgets of Wetlandsp. 194
Stress, Strain and Metastability of Beech, Alder, Pasture and Agro-Ecosystemsp. 195
Elemental Imbalances as Strain Indicatorsp. 196
Element Budgets and Strain Reactions of Beech Standsp. 198
Strain Reactions of Alder Stands and Pasturesp. 203
Agricultural Impactp. 204
Conclusionsp. 204
Transport Processes between Lake Belau and its Drainage Basinp. 207
Introductionp. 207
A Path Concept as a System-Linking Methodological Platformp. 207
Exchange of Water between Lake Belau and its Catchmentp. 209
Hydrological Structure of the Catchmentp. 209
Ecohydrological Structure of Lentic Ecotonesp. 214
Water Distribution Matrices of Lentic Ecotonesp. 218
Non-Point Inputs of Nitrogenp. 218
Bonding Forms and Concentrationsp. 218
Path-Based Balance of Nitrogen Inputs from Contiguous Uplandsp. 224
Influence of Lentic Ecotones on Non-Point Inputs of Nitrogenp. 224
Inter-Scale Balances of Lateral Fluxesp. 226
Non-Point Inputs of Phosphorusp. 231
Bonding Forms and Concentrationsp. 231
Atmospheric Input of Phosphorus into Lake Belaup. 234
Path-Related Phosphorus Inputs into Riparian Ecotonesp. 234
Influence of Lentic Ecotones on Phosphorus Transferp. 235
Comparative Evaluation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fluxesp. 237
Conclusionsp. 239
Lake Belaup. 241
Introductionp. 241
Hydrographic Structure of the Lake Belau Drainage Basinp. 242
Energetic Setting of Lake Belau and its Drainage Basinp. 242
Short-Wave Net Radiationp. 242
Water Temperature, Wind and Stratificationp. 245
Dissolved and Particulate Nutrients and Trace Elements in Water and Sedimentsp. 250
Macronutrient and Carbon Fluxesp. 253
Micronutrients and Trace Elementsp. 260
Biocoenosesp. 263
Reed Beltsp. 263
Aufwuchs-Associated Nematodes and Oligochaetesp. 265
Molluscsp. 266
Chironomidsp. 266
Pelagic Phytoplankton and Benthic Algal Assemblagesp. 267
Zooplankton and the Microbial Loopp. 270
Fishp. 272
Species Diversity in the Light of Site Conditions and Organismic Motilityp. 273
Conclusionsp. 275
Ecological Gradients as Causes and Effects of Ecosystem Organizationp. 277
Introductionp. 277
Gradients in Ecosystemsp. 278
Structural Gradientsp. 278
Functional Gradientsp. 283
Gradients as Elements of an Integrative Ecosystem Theoryp. 292
Conclusionsp. 294
From Research to Application
An Indicator-Based Characterization of the Bornhoved Key Ecosystemsp. 297
Introductionp. 297
Methodologyp. 298
Ecosystem Classificationp. 298
Ecosystem Structure and Diversityp. 298
Water and Nutrient Budgetsp. 299
Indication of Ecosystem Integrityp. 303
Characterization of Ecosystem Typesp. 303
Successional Series on Histosolsp. 303
Successional Series on Mineral Soilsp. 305
Discussionp. 305
Patterns of Plant-Species Richnessp. 305
Comparative Carbon Budgets of Ecosystems and their Successional Phasesp. 308
Comparative Nitrogen Budgets of Ecosystems and their Successional Phasesp. 310
Efficiency Measuresp. 312
Integrative Characterization of Ecosystem Evolutionp. 312
Relationships between Species Richness and Ecosystem Functioningp. 313
Nutrient Balances of the Study Areap. 316
Conclusionsp. 316
Ecosystem Research and Sustainable Land Use Managementp. 319
Introductionp. 319
Ecosystem Research and Land Use Strategiesp. 319
Concepts of Sustainable Landscape Managementp. 319
The Demand for an Ecosystem Approach in National and International Regulationsp. 321
Ecosystem Integrity - Protection in the Face of Unspecific Risks to the Human-Environment Interactionp. 325
The Role of Biological Diversity - Losing Insurance Benefitsp. 327
Beyond Sectoral Planning - Outline of the Precautionary Ecosystem Approach to Sustainable Landscape Planningp. 329
From Sectoral Planning to an Ecosystem-Oriented Approachp. 329
Digital Landscape Analysis and Modelling as Tools for an Integrative Landscape Managementp. 335
Modelling Biotic Interactions with Individual-Based Modelsp. 336
Ecohydrological Modelling of Wetland Systemsp. 336
Process-Oriented Modelling on the Landscape Levelp. 338
Ecological Economics and Scenario-Guided Adjustment of Control Systemsp. 342
Conclusions: Perspectives for Integrative Landscape Planning, Management and Monitoringp. 345
Introductionp. 345
Definition of Goals and Valuation Proceduresp. 346
Appropriate Planning Procedures - Integrative Analysisp. 347
Realization of Planned Measuresp. 348
Ecosystem-Oriented Monitoring and Feedback to Planning and Management Processesp. 349
Transfer of Knowledge to the Community, to Stakeholders and to Decision Makersp. 350
Referencesp. 351
Indexp. 385
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540758105
ISBN-10: 3540758100
Series: Ecological Studies
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 392
Published: 1st May 2008
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 2.79
Weight (kg): 0.78