Rebuilding fisheries is a key challenge for many countries as some stocks are in a poor state while others are depleted. The World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002) called for attaining sustainable levels of stocks by the year 2015. But how will nations rebuild their fisheries, while taking into account biological, social, economic and environmental factors? The OECD Committee for Fisheries is undertaking a major study to address this issue In May 2009, economists, biologists, fisheries managers and policy makers participated in an OECD Workshop on the Economics of Rebuilding Fisheries as part of this effort. The workshop was designed to identify and analyse economic uncertainties, policy issues, biological conditions and information constraints, and to review the role of key players in program delivery. This report presents an overview of the major economic and institutional issues associated with rebuilding fisheries and provides examples of national and international initiatives.