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Ecology and Evolution of the Freshwater Mussels Unionoida : Ecological Studies - Gerhard Bauer

Ecology and Evolution of the Freshwater Mussels Unionoida

Ecological Studies

By: Gerhard Bauer (Editor), Klaus Wachtler (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 27th November 2000
ISBN: 9783540672685
Number Of Pages: 396

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All those who think that bivalves are boring are in the best company. Karl von Frisch is reported to have turned the pages more quickly in texts where bivalves were treated because, according to him, they literally lack any behaviour. The fact that they can filtrate huge amounts of water, burrow into the sedi­ ment, actively swim, drill holes into rocks and boats or detect shadows with the aid of pretty blue eyes located on the rim of their mantle obviously left v. Frisch unimpressed. Why, then, a book on the large freshwater mussels (Naiads or Unionoida), which on first sight are much less spectacular than the marine ones? The main reason is that they are keepers of secrets which they reveal only on close and careful inspection. This is not only true for the pearls some species produce and which over centuries have contributed to the treasures of bishops and kings, but particularly for their ecology: their life cycles are linked with those of fishes, some can occur in incredible densities and some can live for more than 100 years. Thus, the presence or absence of naiads in a lake or stream has manifold implications.

Industry Reviews

From the reviews "... Hier wird eine aktuelle Synopse des Wissens uber die Biologie der großen Sußwassermuscheln = Najaden verfugbar gemacht, wie sie in dieser Vollstandigkeit bislang nicht bekannt war. Dafur ist den Autoren zu danken. Der Band sollte in keiner wissenschaftlichen Bibliothek fehlen, ebenso nicht in der von Najadenforschern und Malakozoologen sowie der Nautrschutzverwaltung." (Mainzer Naturwissenschaftliches Archiv Vol. 39, 2001)

Systematics and Distribution
Characterization of the Unionoida (= Naiads)p. 3
Introductionp. 3
Phylogenyp. 3
The Adult Stagep. 3
Larvae and Larval Developmentp. 4
Summaryp. 4
Freshwater Mussels (Hyriidae) of Australasiap. 5
Introductionp. 5
Phylogeny and Biogeographyp. 5
Taxonomyp. 6
Regional Distributionp. 8
Phenotypic Variationp. 10
Reproductionp. 12
Abundance, Growth and Longevityp. 16
Environmental Tolerancesp. 18
Food and Feedingp. 19
Biomonitoringp. 21
Parasites and Predatorsp. 23
Fisheriesp. 23
Conservationp. 24
Conclusionp. 24
Summaryp. 25
Referencesp. 26
Systematics and Distribution of the Recent Margaritiferidaep. 33
Introductionp. 33
The Margaritiferidae Definedp. 33
Diagnosis of the Margaritiferidaep. 34
Review of Classificationsp. 34
Materials and Methodsp. 35
Systematicsp. 35
Characters of the Margaritiferidaep. 35
On Certain Species of the Margaritiferidaep. 37
Revised Classification of the Margaritiferidaep. 40
Distributionp. 43
Summaryp. 47
Referencesp. 47
Population Genetics and Systematics of European Unionoideap. 51
Introductionp. 51
Methodsp. 52
Materialp. 52
Electrophoresisp. 52
Analysis of Datap. 53
Genetic Variabilityp. 53
Cluster Analysis of Genetic Distancesp. 53
Gene Flow Estimatesp. 54
Limits to Population Genetics Methodsp. 54
Margaritiferidaep. 58
Unionidae: Anodontinaep. 59
Molecular Variability and Systematicsp. 59
Genetic Differentiationp. 59
Gene Flowp. 62
Conclusionsp. 62
Unionidae: Unioninaep. 64
Unio pictorump. 64
Molecular Variability and Systematicsp. 64
Genetic Differentiationp. 69
Gene Flowp. 69
Conclusionsp. 71
Unio crassusp. 74
Molecular Variability and Systematicsp. 74
Genetic Differentiationp. 74
Unio tumidusp. 75
Molecular Variability and Systematicsp. 75
Genetic Differentiationp. 75
Unionidae: Ambleminaep. 75
Microcondylaea bonelliip. 75
Potomida littoralisp. 76
Summaryp. 78
Referencesp. 78
Life-History Strategies
Life-History Variation on Different Taxonomic Levels of Naiadsp. 83
Introductionp. 83
Life Span, Size and Shell Morphologyp. 83
Sexual Strategies, Brooding and Host Infectionp. 85
Larvae, Larval Development and Host Rangep. 86
Conclusionsp. 88
Summaryp. 89
Referencesp. 89
Larval Types and Early Postlarval Biology in Naiads (Unionoida)p. 93
Introductionp. 93
The Glochidium: the Most Common Larva in Naiadsp. 93
Early Observationsp. 93
Formation, Storage and Release of Glochidiap. 93
Numbersp. 95
Morphologyp. 95
Shape and Sizep. 96
Shellp. 97
Adductor Musclep. 97
Sensory Hairsp. 97
Ciliary Fieldsp. 99
Larval Mantlep. 99
Larval Threadp. 99
Interactions with the Host Fishp. 100
Suitable Host Fishp. 101
Attachmentp. 102
Cyst Formationp. 102
Growthp. 102
Metamorphosisp. 102
Length of Larval Periodp. 103
The Lasidium: a Larval Type with Two Developmental Optionsp. 105
Introductory Remarks on the Information Availablep. 105
Early Observationsp. 106
Formation, Storage and Release of Lasidiap. 106
Numbersp. 106
Morphologyp. 106
Shape and Sizep. 106
Body Surfacep. 108
Adductor Musclep. 108
Adhesive Structuresp. 108
Interactions with the Host Fishp. 110
Suitable Host Fishp. 110
Attachmentp. 110
Option One: Cyst Formationp. 110
Option Two: Transformation into a Second Larval Stagep. 110
Haustorium Formation in Mutela bourguignatip. 112
Differentiation of the Young Mussel at the Distal End of a Stalkp. 112
Direct Development in Naiadsp. 112
From Ectoparasitism to Filter Feeding: the Biology of the Juvenile Musselp. 114
Leaving the Host Fishp. 114
Morphologyp. 114
Initial Sizep. 114
Shellsp. 115
Gillsp. 115
Foot and Locomotionp. 115
Mantlep. 115
Digestive Systemp. 117
Ecologyp. 117
Habitat Selectionp. 117
Feedingp. 117
Growthp. 118
Comparative Remarks on Naiad Developmentp. 119
Summaryp. 119
Referencesp. 119
Plasticity of Life-History Traits in Unio crassusp. 127
Introductionp. 127
Estimations of Body Growth Parametersp. 127
Interrelations Among Body Growth Parametersp. 128
Significance of the Body Growth Constantp. 128
Plasticity of Body Growth Parameters in Unio crassusp. 128
Body Growth Constant Versus Life Spanp. 129
Body Growth Constant Versus Length Parametersp. 130
Influence of Environmental Factorsp. 131
Water Temperaturep. 131
Physicochemical Parameters of Brook Waterp. 131
The Impact of Growth Pattern on Reproductionp. 132
Allometric Constraints on Fertilityp. 132
Differences in Spawning Repetitions Among Individuals and Populationsp. 133
Consequences of Life-History Variation for the Survival of Populationsp. 137
Summaryp. 138
Referencesp. 139
Life-History Data on the Virtually Unknown Margaritifera auriculariap. 143
Introductionp. 143
The population of M. auricularia in the Imperial Canalp. 143
Reproductive Behaviourp. 145
Two Species Declining Togetherp. 147
Conservation of an Endangered Speciesp. 150
Summaryp. 150
Referencesp. 151
Populations and Communities
Factors Affecting Naiad Occurrence and Abundancep. 155
Introductionp. 155
The Population Levelp. 156
Stage- and Age-Specific Mortalityp. 156
Larval Stagep. 156
Parasitic Stagep. 156
Juvenile Stagep. 156
Adult Stagep. 156
Survivorship Curvep. 157
Age-Specific Fertilityp. 159
The Community Levelp. 159
Habitat Characteristicsp. 159
Predationp. 160
Interspecific Competitionp. 160
Summaryp. 160
Referencesp. 161
Effect of Muskrat Predation on Naiadsp. 163
Introductionp. 163
The Study Speciesp. 163
Effect of Muskrat Predation on a Population of Margaritifera margaritifera and Pyganodon cataracta in New Brunswick, Canadap. 165
Methods of the Canadian Studiesp. 165
Predation on Margaritifera margaritiferap. 165
Predation on Pyganodon cataractap. 166
Laboratory and Statistical Analysesp. 167
Results of the Studies in Canadap. 167
Species and Size Selectionp. 167
Morphology and Energetic Valuep. 168
Effect of Muskrat Predation on the Populations of Unionid Mussels in Germanyp. 169
Methods of the German Studiesp. 169
Results of the Studies in Germanyp. 170
Numbers of Mussels Eaten by Muskratsp. 170
Species-Selective Predationp. 171
Size-Selective Predation on Unio pictorump. 171
Seasonal Pattern of Muskrat Predationp. 173
Discussionp. 174
Muskrat Predation Rates and Persistence of Endangered Mussel Populationsp. 174
Size- and Species-Selective Predationp. 176
Seasonal Pattern of Muskrat Predationp. 179
Consequences of the Muskrat Invasion of Europep. 180
Summaryp. 180
Referencesp. 181
Glochidial Mortality in Freshwater Musselsp. 185
Introductionp. 185
Factors Contributing to the Mortality of Unionoidea Early Life Stagesp. 186
Larval Development and Release of Glochidiap. 186
Free-Living Glochidiap. 188
Glochidial Attachment and Encapsulationp. 193
Fish Hosts and Parasitic Phasep. 195
Glochidial Detachment and Early Postparasitic Stagep. 199
Quantitative Estimates of Glochidial Mortalityp. 201
Summaryp. 203
Referencesp. 203
Macrohabitat Factors Influencing the Distribution of Naiads in the St. Croix River, Minnesota and Wisconsin, USAp. 213
Introductionp. 213
Materials and Methodsp. 214
Study Locationp. 214
Data Sourcesp. 216
Data Analysisp. 216
Resultsp. 217
Discussionp. 222
Summaryp. 226
Referencesp. 227
Evolutionary Biology
Framework and Driving Forces for the Evolution of Naiad Life Historiesp. 233
Introductionp. 233
The Evolution of Major Life-History Traitsp. 233
Evolutionary Trends: from Primitive to Derivedp. 233
Hydrodynamic Efficiencyp. 234
Demibranch Morphologyp. 234
Mode of Host Infectionp. 234
Responses to Environmental Variation: Constraints, Tradeoffs, Plasticity and Adaptationsp. 235
Body Sizep. 235
Life Spanp. 236
Host Range, Glochidial Size, Fertilityp. 237
A Case Study: Life History Evolution along a River and a Trophic Gradientp. 238
Habitat Distribution of Four European Speciesp. 239
Life Spanp. 239
What Factor Determines Life Span?p. 239
A Strategy for Maximizing Life Span: Margaritifera margaritiferap. 242
Evidencep. 242
Mechanismsp. 244
Host Range, Glochidial Size, Fertilityp. 244
Impact of the Fish Faunap. 244
A Strategy for Maximizing Fertility as well as Young Mussel Size: Margaritifera margaritiferap. 245
Brooding and Host Infectionp. 245
A Strategy for Improving Survival of Glochidia: Anodontap. 247
Conclusions: a Sequence of Strategiesp. 247
Plastic and Canalized Traitsp. 248
Life Histories and Rates of Evolutionp. 249
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540672685
ISBN-10: 3540672680
Series: Ecological Studies
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 396
Published: 27th November 2000
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.98 x 16.66  x 2.06
Weight (kg): 0.69

Earn 426 Qantas Points
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