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Black and Blue : African Americans, the Labor Movement, and the Decline of the Democratic Party - Paul Frymer

Black and Blue

African Americans, the Labor Movement, and the Decline of the Democratic Party

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In the 1930s, fewer than one in one hundred U.S. labor union members were African American. By 1980, the figure was more than one in five. Black and Blue explores the politics and history that led to this dramatic integration of organized labor. In the process, the book tells a broader story about how the Democratic Party unintentionally sowed the seeds of labor's decline.

The labor and civil rights movements are the cornerstones of the Democratic Party, but for much of the twentieth century these movements worked independently of one another. Paul Frymer argues that as Democrats passed separate legislation to promote labor rights and racial equality they split the issues of class and race into two sets of institutions, neither of which had enough authority to integrate the labor movement.

From this division, the courts became the leading enforcers of workplace civil rights, threatening unions with bankruptcy if they resisted integration. The courts' previously unappreciated power, however, was also a problem: in diversifying unions, judges and lawyers enfeebled them financially, thus democratizing through destruction. Sharply delineating the double-edged sword of state and legal power, Black and Blue chronicles an achievement that was as problematic as it was remarkable, and that demonstrates the deficiencies of race- and class-based understandings of labor, equality, and power in America.

Preface vii
List of Abbreviations xiii
CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1
CHAPTER 2: The Dual Development of National Labor Policy 22
CHAPTER 3: The NAACP Confronts Racism in the Labor Movement 44
CHAPTER 4: The Legal State 70
CHAPTER 5: Labor Law and Institutional Racism 98
CHAPTER 6: Conclusion: Law and Democracy 128
Notes 141
Index 195

ISBN: 9781400837267
ISBN-10: 140083726X
Format: PDF
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 224
Published: 15th October 2008