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Earth System Science: Volume 72 : From Biogeochemical Cycles to Global Changes - Robert J. Charleson

Earth System Science: Volume 72

From Biogeochemical Cycles to Global Changes

Paperback Published: 8th March 2000
ISBN: 9780123793706
Number Of Pages: 527

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Over the last decade, the study of cycles as a model for the earth's changing climate has become a new science. Earth Systems Science is the basis for understanding all aspects of anthropogenic global change, such as chemically forced global climate change. The work is aimed at those students interested in the emerging scientific discipline.
Earth Systems Science is an integrated discipline that has been rapidly developing over the last two decades. New information is included in this updated edition so that the text remains relevant.
This volume contains five new chapters, but of special importance is the inclusion of an expanded set of student exercises.
The two senior authors are leading scientists in their fields and have been awarded numerous prizes for their research efforts.

* First edition was widely adopted
* Authors are highly respected in their field
* Global climate change, integral to the book, is now one of the most important issues in atmospheric sciences and oceanography

Industry Reviews

"Anyone fascinated by natural phenomena and concerned about the state of the planet will treasure this work.... It is the first place to turn when needing answers to such questions as "How much water is in the ocean?", ... "What is the annual sediment load to the sea?" It also includes many of the equations used to calculate process rates and transfers between reservoirs." --Prof. Suzanne N. Levine, Aiken Center, Burlington, Vermont

Authorsp. x
Preface to the Second Editionp. xii
Preface to the First Editionp. xiii
Basic Concepts for Earth System Sciencep. 1
Introduction: Biogeochemical Cycles as Fundamental Constructs for Studying Earth System Science and Global Changep. 3
Introductionp. 3
Historyp. 5
Evidence for the Coupled Nature of the Earth Systemp. 6
Philosophy of Using the Cycle Approach to Describe Natural Systems on Earthp. 9
Reservoir Models and Cycles - Some Definitionsp. 9
The Philosophy of Integration as a Basis for Understanding the Earth Systemp. 11
The Limitations and Challenges of Understanding Earth Systemsp. 12
Referencesp. 12
The Origin and Early Evolution of the Earthp. 14
Introductionp. 14
Pre-Solar Evolution: The Origin of the Elementsp. 14
The Origin of the Solar Systemp. 19
Condensationp. 20
Accretion of the Planetsp. 23
Early Evolution of the Earthp. 25
Earth and the Development of Lifep. 27
Referencesp. 28
Evolution and the Biospherep. 29
The Origin of Life on Earthp. 29
The Machinery of Lifep. 31
Evolutionary Mechanismsp. 35
The Diversity of Living Organismsp. 42
The Ecological Organization of the Living Worldp. 46
The Impact of Life on Biogeochemical Cyclesp. 48
How Biogeochemical Cycles Affect Lifep. 53
Referencesp. 55
Appendixp. 57
Modeling Biogeochemical Cyclesp. 62
Introductory Remarksp. 62
Time Scales and Single Reservoir Systemsp. 62
Coupled Reservoirsp. 67
Fluxes Influenced by the Receiving Reservoirp. 73
Coupled Cyclesp. 74
Forward and Inverse Modelingp. 74
High-Resolution Modelsp. 74
Transport Processesp. 76
Time Scales of Mixing in the Atmosphere and Oceansp. 81
Questionsp. 83
Referencesp. 83
Equilibrium, Rate, and Natural Systemsp. 85
Introductionp. 85
Thermodynamicsp. 85
Oxidation and Reductionp. 91
Chemical Kineticsp. 96
Non-Equilibrium Natural Systemsp. 101
Summaryp. 103
Questionsp. 103
Referencesp. 104
Properties of and Transfers between the Key Reservoirsp. 107
Water and the Hydrospherep. 109
Introductionp. 109
Global Water Balancep. 112
Hydrologic Variabilityp. 119
Water and Climatep. 124
Water and Biogeochemical Cyclesp. 127
Water and the Tectonic Cyclesp. 128
Anthropogenic Influencesp. 128
Conclusionp. 129
Referencesp. 130
The Atmospherep. 132
Definitionp. 132
The Vertical Structure of the Atmospherep. 133
Vertical Motions, Relative Humidity, and Cloudsp. 136
The Ozone Layer and the Stratospherep. 137
Horizontal Motions, Atmospheric Transport, and Dispersionp. 138
Compositionp. 142
Atmospheric Water and Cloud Microphysicsp. 144
Trace Atmospheric Constituentsp. 146
Chemical Interactions of Trace Atmospheric Constituentsp. 150
Physical Transformations of Trace Substances in the Atmospherep. 152
Influence of Atmospheric Composition on Climatep. 153
Chemical Processes and Exchanges at the Lower and Upper Boundaries of the Atmospherep. 156
Referencesp. 158
Soils, Watershed Processes, and Marine Sedimentsp. 159
Introductionp. 159
Weatheringp. 160
Soilsp. 164
Watershed Processesp. 177
Marine Sedimentsp. 184
Soils, Weathering, and Global Biogeochemical Cyclesp. 189
Questionsp. 190
Referencesp. 190
Tectonic Processes and Erosionp. 195
Introductionp. 195
Erosion, a Capsule Summaryp. 196
Soils and the Local Weathering Environmentp. 198
Slope Processes and the Susceptibility of Lithologies to Erosionp. 202
Landforms, Tectonism, Sea Level, and Erosionp. 206
Erosion in Tectonically Active Areasp. 212
Erosion of the Cratonsp. 216
The Effects of Transients: Continental Ice Sheets and Human Technologyp. 220
Conclusionp. 223
Questionsp. 224
Referencesp. 224
The Oceansp. 230
What is the Ocean?p. 230
Ocean Circulationp. 232
Biological Processesp. 246
Chemistry of the Oceansp. 255
Questionsp. 273
Referencesp. 273
Biogeochemical Cyclesp. 279
The Global Carbon Cyclep. 282
Introductionp. 282
The Isotopes of Carbonp. 283
The Major Reservoirs of Carbonp. 284
Fluxes of Carbon between Reservoirsp. 297
Models of the Carbon Cyclep. 302
Trends in the Carbon Cyclep. 303
Referencesp. 309
The Nitrogen Cyclep. 322
Introductionp. 322
Chemistryp. 322
Biological Transformations of Nitrogenp. 325
Anthropogenic Nitrogen Fixationp. 328
Atmospheric Chemistryp. 329
The Global Nitrogen Cyclep. 331
Human Impactsp. 334
Questionsp. 339
Referencesp. 340
The Sulfur Cyclep. 343
Introductionp. 343
Oxidation States of Sulfurp. 344
Sulfur Reservoirsp. 346
The Atmospheric Cycle of Sulfurp. 347
Hydrospheric Cycle of Sulfurp. 354
Questionsp. 358
Referencesp. 358
The Phosphorus Cyclep. 360
Occurrence of Phosphorusp. 360
Sub-Global Phosphorus Transfersp. 364
The Global Phosphorus Cyclep. 367
Questionsp. 373
Referencesp. 374
Trace Metalsp. 377
Introductionp. 377
Metals and Geochemistryp. 377
An Overview of Metal Ion Chemistryp. 381
Observations on Metals in Natural Systemsp. 402
Examples of Global Metal Cyclingp. 406
Summaryp. 414
Questionsp. 415
Referencesp. 416
Integrationp. 419
The Acid-Base and Oxidation-Reduction Balances of the Earthp. 421
Introductionp. 421
A Hierarchy of Acid-Base Balancesp. 422
Oxidation-Reduction Balances of the Earth Systemp. 428
Conclusionp. 437
Referencesp. 437
The Coupling of Biogeochemical Cycles and Climate: Forcings, Feedbacks, and Responsesp. 439
The Climate Systemp. 439
The Dynamics of the Climate System: Forcings, Feedbacks, and Responsesp. 442
Forcings of Climatep. 446
Feedbacksp. 450
Climatic States and Responsesp. 456
Referencesp. 457
Ice Sheets and the Ice-Core Record of Climate Changep. 459
Introductionp. 459
Quaternary Climate Changep. 460
Ice Sheets as Paleoclimate Archivesp. 466
Some Lessons in Environmental Historyp. 489
Referencesp. 494
Human Modification of the Earth System: Global Changep. 498
Global Climate Changep. 498
Acid Precipitationp. 500
Food Productionp. 501
Stratospheric Ozone Depletionp. 501
Large-Scale Eutrophicationp. 503
Oxidative Capacity of the Global Tropospherep. 503
Life and Biogeochemical Cyclesp. 504
Conclusionp. 506
Referencesp. 507
Answers to Questionsp. 509
Indexp. 511
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780123793706
ISBN-10: 012379370X
Series: International Geophysics Series
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 527
Published: 8th March 2000
Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.77 x 18.42  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 1.21
Edition Number: 2

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