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Earth Sciences in the Age of the Satellite - J. Pouquet

Earth Sciences in the Age of the Satellite

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Published: 30th November 1974
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Renaissance man " ... discovered many a mechanical marvel .... The achievement of the astronauts '" opened up comparable prospects to the men of today, but of infinitely wider scope". C. LUCET, French Ambassador to the United States.* "Any future ... must inevitably pass through the channel of combined disciplines ... (from which) will arise a humanization of state-of-the-art technology, and updating of methods of Earth Science." Author unknown.** "It is difficult to say what is impossible, for the dream of yesterday is the hope of today and reality tomorrow." ROBERT GODDARD, American physicist. This'phrase has become the symbol of NASA . * Is there a crisis of the spirit?, Bu/. Soc. Prof. Fr. en Amer. (1969) p. 9. *. La recherchespatiale [Space Research] (May 1969) p. 15. INTRODUCTION FROM GALILEO TO ALDRIN AND ARMSTRONG In 1610, Galileo observed the surface of the Moon through the lens which bears his name and announced that, contrary to official opinion, its surface was irregular and not smooth. We now know that this observation -and many others ofGalileo-was a correct one, but the opposition that always arises against research too far ahead of its time resulted in his condemnation.

From Galileo to Aldrin and Armstrong.- 1. Some Basic Observations.- 1/Basic Principles of Remote Detection.- I. The Electromagnetic Spectrum.- 1. Spectral Bands not Used by Earth Sciences.- 2. Bands of the Spectrum Usable and Partially Used in Earth Sciences.- II. The Visible and Near Infrared of the Electromagnetic Spectrum.- 1. The Basic Principles of Photography.- 2. Multispectral Photography.- 3. Stereoscopic Photographs.- 4. Fineness of Resolution of Photographic Emulsions.- III. The Invisible Part of the Electromagnetic Spectrum.- 1. Atmospheric Absorption.- 2. Atmospheric Windows.- 3. Microwaves.- IV. Emitted Radiation and Reflected Radiation.- 1. Reflected Radiation.- 2. Emitted Radiation.- Conclusion to Part 1.- 2/Artificial Satellites and Remote Detection.- Types of Satellites.- 1. 'TIROS-ESSA' Type.- 2. ATS Type.- 3. 'Nimbus' Type.- I. The Problem of Real Time.- 1. Opposition between Eastern and Western Margins.- 2. Time Increments as a Function of Latitude.- 3. Importance of the Real Time Problem.- II. Instrumentation Onboard the Satellites.- 1. Types of Instruments According to Spectral Band.- 2. Ground Resolution.- 3. Equipment on Board Satellites.- 4. Signal Reception.- III. Satellites Destined for Earth Sciences.- 1. NERO.- 2. SCMR and ESMR.- 3. RBV and MSS ('ERTS 1' and '2').- 4. Hyper Frequencies and Thermal Infrared.- 5. Processing of Information Received from Earth Resources Satellites.- IV. Processing of Information Received from Meteorological Satellites.- 1. Onboard Detection and Retransmission to Earth.- 2. Production of Photographic Records (Photofacsimile).- 3. Digitized Magnetic Tapes (NMRT).- 4. Digitized Maps.- 5. Cartographic Problems.- Conclusions to Part 2. Aircraft and Space Vessels: Competition or Cooperation?.- 1. Satellite Superiority.- 2. Aircraft Superiority.- 3. Response to the Question at Issue.- 3/Applications to Earth Sciences.- I. Manned Satellites.- 1. Multispectral Photography (Apollo 9).- 2. Some Mapping Results Obtained with Photographs from the Various Gemini Satellites.- II. Broad Principles of Interpretation.- 1. 'The Surface'.- 2. Reflected Infrared.- 3. Emitted Infrared.- 4. Passive Microwaves.- III. Geopedological Examples.- 1. Reflected Near Infrared (0.8-1.3 um).- 2. Emitted Nocturnal Infrared.- 3. Emitted Diurnal Infrared.- 4. Passive Microwaves.- 5. Conclusion.- IV. Non-Geopedological Examples.- 1. Volcanology.- 2. Glaciology.- 3. Oceanography.- 4. Some Meteorological Aspects.- General Conclusion. Prospects for the Future.- 1. Satellites of the Immediate Future.- 2. The Three Future of Remote Detection.- 3. University Aspects.- Appendixes.- Appendix A. The Great Firsts of the Space Age.- Appendix B. Where to Obtain Satellite Data?.- Appendix C. Requests for Photographs (Facsimile, Television).- Appendix D. Application for Digitized Map.- Appendix E. NASA Questionnaire on Utilization of ERTS (Earth Resources Satellites) and Skylab Information.- Appendix F. Emitted Energy and Emissivity.- Appendix G. How to Derive the Height of an Object from Aerial Photographs.- Map Supplements.

ISBN: 9789027704375
ISBN-10: 9027704376
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 169
Published: 30th November 1974
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.8  x 1.2
Weight (kg): 0.97