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Early Diagenesis : A Theoretical Approach - Robert A. Berner

Early Diagenesis

A Theoretical Approach

Paperback Published: 21st August 1980
ISBN: 9780691082608
Number Of Pages: 256

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Diagenesis refers to changes taking place in sediments after deposition. In a theoretical treatment of early diagenesis, Robert Berner shows how a rigorous development of the mathematical modeling of diagenetic processes can be useful to the understanding and interpretation of both experimental and field observations. His book is unique in that the models are based on quantitative rate expressions, in contrast to the qualitative descriptions that have dominated the field.



In the opening chapters, the author develops the mathematical theory of early diagenesis, introducing a general diagenetic equation and discussing it in terms of each major diagenetic process. Included are the derivations of basic rate equations for diffusion, compaction, pore-water flow, burial advection, bioturbation, adsorption, radioactive decay, and especially chemical and biochemical reactions. Drawing on examples from the recent literature on continental-margin, pelagic, and non-marine sediments, he then illustrates the power of these diagenetic models in the study of such deposits.



The book is intended not only for earth scientists studying sediments and sedimentary rocks, but also for researchers in fields such as radioactive waste disposal, petroleum and economic geology, environmental pollution, and sea-floor engineering.

"'Diagenesis' refers to the sum total of processes that produce changes--mineralogical, chemical, and physical--in sediments from the time of the deposition on... [Berner's] treatment of the subject is generally clear, and the material is well organized, up to date, and sufficiently illustrated by means of graphs and occasional sketches."--Science

Prefacep. ix
List of Symbolsp. xi
Introductionp. 3
Theory
General Theoryp. 9
Preliminary Considerationsp. 9
The General Diagenetic Equationp. 13
Diagenetic Physical and Biological Processesp. 15
Advective Processesp. 15
Compactionp. 15
Rate of depositionp. 21
Some additional useful relationsp. 23
Factors affecting porosity and compactionp. 26
Diffusionp. 31
Molecular diffusionp. 31
Benthic boundary diffusionp. 41
Bioturbationp. 42
Transfer across the Sediment-Water Interfacep. 53
Summary of Mathematics of Diagenetic Physical and Biological Processesp. 55
Diagenetic Chemical Processes I: Equilibrium, Homogeneous, and Microbial Reactionsp. 57
Equilibrium Processesp. 57
Determination of equilibriump. 57
Solubility equilibriump. 62
Equilibrium adsorption and ion exchangep. 64
Inclusion of equilibrium processes in diagenetic equationsp. 70
Homogeneous Reactions (Including Radioactive Decay)p. 77
Microbial (Metabolic) Reactionsp. 81
Diagenetic Chemical Processes II: Precipitation, Dissolution, and Authigenic Processesp. 90
Precipitationp. 90
Energetics of precipitationp. 90
Nucleationp. 93
Crystal growthp. 95
Transport-Controlled Growthp. 97
Surface-Reaction Controlled Growthp. 101
Dissolutionp. 105
Authigenic (Mineral-Diagenetic) Processesp. 108
Diagenetic redistributionp. 108
Flow vs diffusionp. 117
Precipitation (replacement) from an external sourcep. 118
Causative factors in authigenic processesp. 126
Applications
Marine Sediments of the Continental Marginsp. 135
Diagenesis Within the Zone of Bioturbationp. 136
Diagenesis Below the Zone of Bioturbationp. 148
Sulfate reductionp. 149
Ammonia formationp. 161
Phosphate diagenesisp. 168
Methane formationp. 174
Pelagic (Deep-Sea) Sedimentsp. 178
Calcium Carbonate Dissolutionp. 178
Opaline Silica Dissolutionp. 190
Suboxic Organic Matter Diagenesisp. 194
Diagenesis of Radioisotopesp. 198
Volcanic-Seawater Reactionp. 202
Non-Marine Sedimentsp. 206
Fresh and Brackish Water Sedimentsp. 206
Salinity fluctuationsp. 206
Iron diagenesisp. 210
Manganese diagenesisp. 215
Hypersaline Sedimentsp. 222
Referencesp. 225
Indexp. 239
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691082608
ISBN-10: 069108260X
Series: Princeton Series in Geochemistry
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 256
Published: 21st August 1980
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.42 x 15.55  x 1.75
Weight (kg): 0.39