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Dynamical Paleoclimatology : Generalized Theory of Global Climate Change - Barry Saltzman

Dynamical Paleoclimatology

Generalized Theory of Global Climate Change


Published: 19th October 2001
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The book discusses the ideas and creates a framework for building toward a theory of paleoclimate. Using the rich and mounting array of observational evidence of climatic changes from geology, geochemistry, and paleontology, Saltzman offers a dynamical approach to the theory of paleoclimate evolution and an expanded theory of climate.
Saltzman was a distinquished authority on dynamical meteorology. This book provides a comprehensive framework based on dynamical system ideas for a theory of climate and paleoclimatic evolution which is intended for graduate students and research workers in paleoclimatology, earth system studies, and global change research. The book includes an extensive bibliography of geological and physical/dynamical references.
Written by the late Barry Saltzman who was a distinquished authority on dynamical meteorology
This book provides a comprehensive framework based on dynamical system ideas for a theory of climate and paleoclimatic evolution
The book includes extensive bibliography of geological and physical/dynamical references

Prologuep. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
List of Symbolsp. xxi
Introduction: The Basic Challengep. 3
The Climate Systemp. 3
Some Basic Observationsp. 4
External Forcingp. 9
The Ice-Age Problemp. 14
Techniques for Climate Reconstructionp. 17
Historical Methodsp. 17
Surficial Biogeologic Proxy Evidencep. 18
Conventional Nonisotopic Stratigraphic Analyses of Sedimentary Rock and Icep. 20
Isotopic Methodsp. 23
Nonisotopic Geochemical Methodsp. 26
Dating the Proxy Evidence (Geochronometry)p. 27
A Survey of Global Paleoclimatic Variationsp. 30
The Phanerozoic Eon (Past 600 My)p. 31
The Cenozoic Era (Past 65 My)p. 34
The Plio-Pleistocene (Past 5 My)p. 35
Variations during the Last Ice Age: IRD Eventsp. 37
The Last Glacial Maximum (20 ka)p. 38
Postglacial Changes: The Past 20 kyp. 39
The Past 100 Yearsp. 40
The Generalized Spectrum of Climatic Variancep. 41
A Qualitative Discussion of Causesp. 44
General Theoretical Considerationsp. 47
The Fundamental Equationsp. 47
Time Averaging and Stochastic Forcingp. 51
Response Times and Equilibriump. 55
Spatial Averagingp. 60
Climatic-Mean Mass and Energy Balance Equationsp. 63
Special Theoretical Considerations for Paleoclimate: Structuring a Dynamical Approachp. 68
A Basic Problem: Noncalculable Levels of Energy and Mass Flowp. 69
An Overall Strategyp. 72
Notational Simplifications for Resolving Total Climate Variabilityp. 74
A Structured Dynamical Approachp. 76
The External Forcing Function, Fp. 82
Basic Concepts of Dynamical Systems Analysis: Prototypical Climatic Applicationsp. 84
Local (or Internal) Stabilityp. 84
The Generic Cubic Nonlinearityp. 86
Structural (or External) Stability: Elements of Bifurcation Theoryp. 87
Multivariable Systemsp. 92
A Prototype Two-Variable Modelp. 95
The Prototype Two-Variable System as a Stochastic-Dynamical System: Effects of Random Forcingp. 103
More Than Two-Variable Systems: Deterministic Chaosp. 108
Physics of the Separate Domains
Modeling the Atmosphere and Surface State as Fast-Response Componentsp. 113
The General Circulation Modelp. 114
Lower Resolution Models: Statistical-Dynamical Models and the Energy Balance Modelp. 115
Thermodynamic Modelsp. 119
The Basic Energy Balance Modelp. 121
Equilibria and Dynamical Properties of the Zero-Dimensional (Global Average) EBMp. 123
Stochastic Resonancep. 127
The One-Dimensional (Latitude-Dependent) EBMp. 129
Transitivity Properties of the Atmospheric and Surface Climatic State: Inferences from a GCMp. 132
Closure Relationships Based on GCM Sensitivity Experimentsp. 134
Formal Feedback Analysis of the Fast-Response Equilibrium Statep. 139
Paleoclimatic Simulationsp. 143
The Slow-Response "Control" Variables: An Overviewp. 146
The Ice Sheetsp. 147
Greenhouse Gases: Carbon Dioxidep. 149
The Thermohaline Ocean Statep. 151
A Three-Dimensional Phase-Space Trajectoryp. 154
Global Dynamics of the Ice Sheetsp. 158
Basic Equations and Boundary Conditionsp. 158
A Scale Analysisp. 163
The Vertically Integrated Ice-Sheet Modelp. 166
The Surface Mass Balancep. 168
Basal Temperature and Meltingp. 169
Deformable Basal Regolithp. 171
Ice Streams and Ice Shelvesp. 172
Bedrock Depressionp. 172
Sea Level Change and the Ice Sheets: The Depression-Calving Hypothesisp. 173
Paleoclimatic Applications of the Vertically Integrated Modelp. 176
A Global Dynamical Equation for Ice Massp. 177
Dynamics of Atmospheric CO[subscript 2]p. 181
The Air-Sea Flux, Qp. 183
Terrestrial Organic Carbon Exchange, W[subscript G]p. 192
Outgassing Processes, Vp. 196
Rock Weathering Downdraw, Wp. 197
A Global Dynamical Equation for Atmospheric CO[subscript 2]p. 200
Modeling the Tectonically Forced CO[subscript 2] Variations, [mu]: Long-Term Rock Processesp. 200
Overview of the Full Global Carbon Cyclep. 205
Simplified Dynamics of the Thermohaline Ocean Statep. 206
General Equationsp. 208
A Prototype Four-Box Ocean Modelp. 210
The Wind-Driven, Local-Convective, and Baroclinic Eddy Circulationsp. 211
The Two-Box Thermohaline Circulation Model: Possible Bimodality of the Ocean Statep. 216
Integral Equations for the Deep Ocean Statep. 226
Global Dynamical Equations for the Thermohaline State: [theta] and S[subscript [phi]p. 229
Unified Dynamical Theory
The Coupled Fast- and Slow-Response Variables as a Global Dynamical System: Outline of a Theory of Paleoclimatic Variationp. 235
The Unified Model: A Paleoclimate Dynamics Modelp. 236
Feedback-Loop Representationp. 238
Elimination of the Fast-Response Variables: The Center Manifoldp. 241
Sources of Instability: The Dissipative Rate Constantsp. 242
Formal Separation into Tectonic Equilibrium and Departure Equationsp. 244
Forced Evolution of the Tectonic-Mean Climatic Statep. 247
Effects of Changing Solar Luminosity and Rotation Ratep. 248
General Effects of Changing Land-Ocean Distribution and Topography (h)p. 249
Effects of Long-Term Variations of Volcanic and Cosmic Dust and Bolidesp. 253
Multimillion-Year Evolution of CO[subscript 2]p. 255
Possible Role of Salinity-Driven Instability of the Tectonic-Mean Statep. 260
Snapshot Atmospheric and Surficial Equilibrium Responses to Prescribed y-Fields Using GCMsp. 261
The Late Cenozoic Ice-Age Departures: An Overview of Previous Ideas and Modelsp. 262
General Review: Forced vs. Free Modelsp. 262
Forced Ice-Line Models (Box 1, Fig. 14-1)p. 266
Ice-Sheet Inertia Modelsp. 267
The Need for Enhancement of the Coupled Ice-Sheet/Atmospheric Climate Modelsp. 271
Ice-Sheet Variables Coupled with Additional Slow-Response Variablesp. 272
Carbon Dioxide, [mu] (Box 10)p. 274
Summaryp. 276
A Global Theory of the Late Cenozoic Ice Ages: Glacial Onset and Oscillationp. 278
Specialization of the Modelp. 279
The 100-ky Oscillation as a Free Response: Determination of the Adjustable Parametersp. 282
Milankovitch Forcing of the Free Oscillationp. 286
Structural Stability as a Function of the Tectonic CO[subscript 2] Levelp. 288
A More Complete Solutionp. 290
Predictionsp. 295
Robustness and Sensitivityp. 297
Summary: A Revival of the CO[subscript 2] Theory of the Ice Agesp. 298
Millennial-Scale Variationsp. 301
Theory of Heinrich Oscillationsp. 303
Dynamics of the D-O Scale Oscillationsp. 311
Closing Thoughts: Epiloguep. 314
Toward a More Complete Theoryp. 314
Epilogue: The "Ice Ages" and "Physics"p. 318
Bibliographyp. 321
Indexp. 343
List of Volumes in the Seriesp. 351
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780126173314
ISBN-10: 0126173311
Series: International Geophysics
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 354
Published: 19th October 2001
Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.5  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 0.86