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Dynamic Biogeography : Cambridge Studies in Ecology - Rob Hengeveld

Dynamic Biogeography

Cambridge Studies in Ecology

By: Rob Hengeveld, H. John B. Birks (Editor), J. A. Wiens (Editor)

Paperback Published: 12th October 1992
ISBN: 9780521437561
Number Of Pages: 264

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Cambridge Studies in Ecology presents balanced, comprehensive, up-to-date, and critical reviews of selected topics within ecology, both botanical and zoological. The Series is aimed at advanced final-year undergraduates, graduate students, researchers, and university teachers, as well as ecologists in industry and government research. It encompasses a wide range of approaches and spatial, temporal, and taxonomic scales in ecology, including quantitative, theoretical, population, community, ecosystem, historical, experimental, behavioural and evolutionary studies. The emphasis throughout is on ecology related to the real world of plants and animals in the field rather than on purely theoretical abstractions and mathematical models. Some books in the Series attempt to challenge existing ecological paradigms and present new concepts, empirical or theoretical models, and testable hypotheses. Others attempt to explore new approaches and presents syntheses on topics of considerable importance ecologically which cut across the conventional but artificial boundaries within the science of ecology.

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"...a stimulating book, well written and arranged." Nature "...offers some interesting insights and perspectives..." Ecology

Acknowledgementsp. xi
Prefacep. xiii
Introductionp. 1
Topicsp. 7
The biological approach to biogeographyp. 8
The evolutionary approach to biogeographyp. 10
The inductive approach to biogeographyp. 12
Biased approaches to biogeographyp. 14
Scales of variationp. 16
Conclusionsp. 20
Patterns of concordancep. 23
Qualitative and quantitative approachesp. 25
The qualitative approachp. 25
An example of the qualitative approachp. 26
The quantitative approachp. 27
An example of the quantitative approachp. 28
Conclusionsp. 31
Methodology of quantitative biogeographical classificationp. 32
A model of biogeographical classificationp. 32
Criteria of biogeographical classificationp. 32
Problems in the application of classification criteriap. 35
Endemism as a classification criterionp. 35
Effects of defining sampling areasp. 36
Procedures in biogeographical classificationp. 39
Similarity coefficientsp. 39
Effects of the number of shared taxa and of sampling areap. 41
Testing differences between similarity coefficientsp. 43
Recommendationsp. 44
Hierarchical cluster techniquesp. 44
A generalized algorithm for agglomerative strategiesp. 45
Some specific agglomerative cluster techniquesp. 46
Recommendationsp. 48
Twinspan, a divisive techniquep. 48
Problems in the application of clustering algorithmsp. 48
Area delimitationp. 48
Interlocation variationp. 49
Intralocation variationp. 50
Testing classificationsp. 51
Conclusionsp. 52
Criticism of biogeographical classificationp. 54
Biogeographical classification and taxonomic levelp. 54
Are biogeographical units homogeneous and stable?p. 55
Geographical discordance of rangesp. 56
How sharp are boundaries?p. 57
Why are biogeographical classifications hierarchical?p. 59
Conclusionsp. 60
Classification and ordinationp. 64
Efficiency of the modelsp. 65
Methodology of ordinationp. 67
Scales of variation and concordant variationp. 69
Combinations of classification and ordinationp. 70
Stability of ordinationsp. 71
An application of classification and ordinationp. 72
Conclusionsp. 76
Summary of Part Ip. 78
Geographical trends in species richness and biological traitsp. 81
Geographical trends in species richnessp. 83
Latitudinal trendsp. 83
Longitudinal trendsp. 85
Continental trends in avian diversityp. 87
Continental trends in Holarctic plantsp. 90
Explanations of broad-scale trends in species richnessp. 92
Geographic nesting of speciesp. 94
The impact of ecological factors on European Silenoidaep. 98
The impact of historical factors on North American Polemoniaceaep. 100
The impact of genetical factors on temperate wheatsp. 101
Conclusionsp. 102
Geographical trends in biological traitsp. 103
Leaf form in plantsp. 104
Life form in plantsp. 105
Polyploidy and genome size in plantsp. 106
Photosynthetic pathwaysp. 109
Shell morphology in marine molluscsp. 112
Alkaloid-bearing speciesp. 114
Conclusionsp. 115
Intraspecific trendsp. 116
Morphological traitsp. 117
Physiological traitsp. 119
Population genetic variationp. 120
Changes in population genetic structurep. 121
Discordant variation in manp. 122
Conclusionsp. 124
Summary of Part IIp. 125
Areography: the analysis of species rangesp. 127
The anatomy of species rangesp. 129
Range structurep. 130
The range as an optimum-response surfacep. 130
The distribution of vitality and dynamic behaviourp. 135
Latitudinal and altitudinal intensity distributionsp. 140
Evaluations of the optimum-response modelp. 142
Range shapep. 142
Range sizep. 143
Range marginsp. 148
Indirect approaches to range delimitationp. 148
Direct approaches to range delimitationp. 154
Risk assessmentp. 157
Why study range margins?p. 159
The geography of species interactionsp. 160
Potential ranges through monophagyp. 161
Changes in the general level of intensityp. 162
Invading speciesp. 165
Optimum-response surfaces and climatic reconstructionp. 166
Conclusionsp. 168
The dynamic structure of species rangesp. 169
Good's Theories of Tolerance and Migration extendedp. 169
Climatic release and dispersal in the spruce budwormp. 171
Climatic causes of range dynamicsp. 174
Features of range dynamicsp. 176
Seasonality and optimum-response surfacesp. 177
Extinctionp. 180
Optimum surfaces and individualistic spatial behaviourp. 182
Conclusion: the range as a processp. 184
Population dynamic theoriesp. 185
Population control versus risk spreadingp. 185
The balance of naturep. 186
Extinction probabilities explained by energy budgets and spatial dynamicsp. 190
Conclusionsp. 193
Summary of Part IIIp. 194
Species ranges and patterns of concordancep. 197
Discontinuous variation in space and timep. 199
Biogeographical provinces and their dynamicsp. 200
Glacials and interglacialsp. 205
The analysis of scales of variationp. 208
The integration of scales of variationp. 210
Global unity of climatic variationp. 211
The representativity of our timep. 213
Conclusionsp. 214
The futurep. 216
Referencesp. 219
Author indexp. 239
Species indexp. 244
Subject indexp. 246
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521437561
ISBN-10: 0521437563
Series: Cambridge Studies in Ecology
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 264
Published: 12th October 1992
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.23 x 15.24  x 1.27
Weight (kg): 0.36