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Drugs, Athletes, and Physical Performance - John A. Thomas

Drugs, Athletes, and Physical Performance

By: John A. Thomas (Editor)


Published: 8th March 2012
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The use of performance-enhancing substances by athletes is not a contemporary epi- demic. In fact, athletes purportedly resorted to such measures over 2000 years ago. Even at the ancient olympic games, athletes employed special diets and concoctions to enhance their performance. In ancient Rome and ancient Egypt, gladiators and athletes ingested various potions in order to improve their physical endurance. In most in- stances, such early examples of substance abuse by athletes involved relatively in- nocuous chemicals, and one might presume that any enhanced performance could be attributed largely to a placebo effect. Nowadays, aside from the ethical issues, these performance-enhancing substances are far more potent and hence toxic to the body. The many performance-enhancing chemicals, drugs, and hormones exert a variety of complex pharmacological actions, but all are meant in some fashion to improve phys- ical ability. Their pharmacological effects ranges from imprOVed muscle strength, as in the case of anabolic steroids and growth hormone, to central nervous system stimula- tion, as in the case of caffeine or amphetamine. Analgesics or other pain-killing drugs may also be used to suppress an existing injury in order that the athlete may compete.

1. Vitamins and Athletes.- 1. Physiological Function.- 1.1. Water-Soluble Vitamins.- 1.2. Fat-Soluble Vitamins.- 2. Metabolism, Exercise, and Vitamins.- 3. Vitamin Supplementation and Enhanced Athletic Performance.- 4. Toxicity of Hypervitaminosis.- 4.1. Vitamin B Complex.- 4.2. Vitamin A.- 4.3. Vitamin D.- 5. Conclusion.- References.- 2. Fate of Anabolic Steroids in the Body.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Physiology of Androgenic Hormones.- 2.1. Structures and Names.- 2.2. Sites and Pathways of Androgen Production.- 2.3. Circulation of Androgens in the Blood.- 2.4. Regulation of Testosterone Synthesis and Secretion by the Testes.- 2.5. Actions and Mechanism of Action of Testosterone.- 2.6. Elimination of Androgens from the Body.- 3. Synthetic Anabolic Steroids.- 3.1. Uses of Anabolic Steroids.- 3.2. Contraindications for the Use of Synthetic Anabolic Steroids.- 3.3. Adverse Effects of Synthetic Anabolic Steroids.- 3.4. Structural Features of Synthetic Anabolic Steroids.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 3. Nutrition, Fluid Balance, and Physical Performance.- 1. Introduction and History.- 1.1. Development of an Understanding of the Importance of Nutrition and Fluid Balance to Physical Performance.- 1.2. Present Practices in Athletics in Nutrition and Fluid Balance.- 2. Nutrition and Fluid Requirements during Physical Performance.- 2.1. Energy Requirements.- 2.2. Protein Requirements.- 2.3. Vitamin Requirements.- 2.4. Mineral and Trace Element Requirements.- 2.5. Fluid Balance, Thermoregulation, and Nutrition.- 3. Nutrition and Fluid Balance for Improved Physical Performance.- 3.1. Carbohydrate Loading.- 3.2. Fats.- 3.3. Proteins.- 3.4. Vitamins.- 3.5. Minerals and Trace Elements.- 3.6. Fluids.- 4. Conclusion.- References.- 4. Analgesics and Sports Medicine Charles.- 1. Introduction and a Discussion of Pain.- 2. Analgesic Drugs.- 2.1. Narcotic Analgesics.- 2.2. Non-narcotic Analgesics.- References.- 5. Calcium.- 1. Dietary Calcium Requirements.- 2. Relationship of Exercise to Calcium Needs.- 3. Changes in Calcium Requirements Secondary to Other Dietary Components.- 4. Changes in Calcium Requirements Secondary to Drugs Used by Athletes.- 5. Changes in Calcium Requirements Secondary to Major Physiological Changes.- 6. Dietary Sources of Calcium.- 7. Calcium Supplements.- 8. Toxicity of Excess Calcium Intake.- References.- 6. Muscle Relaxants.- 1. Neuroregulation of Skeletal Muscle.- 1.1. Alpha Motoneurons and Neuromuscular Transmission.- 1.2. Neuromuscular Junction.- 1.3. Spinal Reflexes.- 1.4. Regulation of Skeletal Muscle by the Brain.- 1.5. Skeletal Muscle Spasm.- 2. General Mechanisms of Muscle Relaxants.- 3. Drugs Acting at the Neuromuscular Junction.- 3.1. Competitive, Nondepolarizing Neuromuscular Blockers.- 3.2. Succinylcholine.- 3.3. Clinical Uses of the Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs.- 4. Centrally Acting Skeletal Muscle Relaxants.- 4.1. Diazepam.- 4.2. Chemical Congeners of Mephenesin.- 4.3. Chlorzoxazone.- 4.4. Cyclobenzaprine.- 4.5. Orphenadrine.- 4.6. Carisoprodol.- 4.7. Clinical Use of Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxants.- References.- 7. Anabolic and Androgenic Steroids.- 1. Physiology of the Androgens.- 2. Physiological Actions of the Androgens.- 3. Androgenic and Anabolic Steroid Drugs.- 4. Pharmacological Actions of the Androgens.- 4.1. Androgenic Steroid Drugs.- 4.2. Anabolic Steroid Drugs.- 4.3. Side Effects of Androgen Therapy.- Suggested Readings.- 8. Anti-inflammatory Agents.- 1. The Inflammatory Response.- 1.1. Vasodilatation and Hyperemia.- 1.2. Increased Permeability.- 1.3. Leukocyte Infiltration.- 1.4. Tissue Damage.- 2. Mediators of the Inflammatory Response.- 2.1. Mediators from Plasma.- 2.2. Mediators from Cells.- 3. Pharmacology of Anti-inflammatory Drugs.- 3.1. Carboxylic Acids.- 3.2. Oxicams.- 3.3. Pyrazoles.- Suggested Readings.- 9. Effect of Exercise on Fuel Utilization and Insulin Requirements.- 1. Fuel Utilization.- 2. Substrate Turnover Rates.- 3. Hormonal Control of Fuel Regulation during Exercise.- 3.1. Hormonal Control of Glucose Regulation.- 3.2. Hormonal Control of Free Fatty Acid Regulation.- 4. Adrenergic Control of Fuel Regulation During Exercise.- 4.1. Brief History.- 4.2. Adrenergic Control of Glucose Regulation.- 4.3. Adrenergic Control of Pancreatic Endocrine Secretions.- 4.4. Adrenergic Control of Free Fatty Acid Regulation.- 5. Mechanisms of Hormonal and Adrenergic Control of Fuel Regulation.- 6. Other Fuel Regulatory Factors.- 6.1. Cholinergic Control.- 6.2. Glucose Autoregulation.- 6.3. Dopamine.- 7. Clinical Considerations.- 7.1. Fuel Utilization in Diabetes.- 7.2. Exercise Effects on Insulin Requirements.- 7.3. Recommendations for Clinical Practice.- References.- 10. Drug Abuse in Athletes.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Why Do Athletes Abuse Drugs?.- 1.2. Definition of the Problem.- 1.3. Breadth of the Problem.- 1.4. Drug Research on Agents of Abuse.- 2. Blood Doping.- 3. Bicarbonate Ingestion.- 4. Growth Hormone.- 5. Anabolic Steroids.- 6. Anti-inflammatory agents.- 6.1. Steroid Anti-inflammatory Agents.- 6.2. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Agents.- 7. Psychomotor Stimulants.- 7.1. Amphetamines.- 7.2. Caffeine.- 7.3. Summary.- 8. Sympathomimetic Amines and Drugs Used to Treat Asthma.- 9. Recreational Drugs.- 9.1. Introduction.- 9.2. Alcohol.- 9.3. Marijuana.- 9.4. Cocaine.- 10. Conclusions.- References.- 11. Exercise and Immunity.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Immune System.- 3. Exercise Effects on the Immune System.- 3.1. Acute Exercise-Induced Leukocytosis.- 3.2. Effects of Chronic Training on Leukocytes.- 3.3. Effects of Exercise on Humoral Immune Factors.- 4. Exercise-Induced Asthma.- 5. Conclusion.- References.- 12. Reproductive Consequences of Athletic Training in Women.- 1. Women and Exercise-Modern Trends.- 2. Background.- 2.1. Physiology of the Menstrual Cycle.- 2.2. Pathophysiology of the Menstrual Cycle.- 3. Hormonal Modulation in Exercise.- 3.1. Acute Response of Gonadotropins, Prolactin, and Steroids to Exercise.- 3.2. Long-Term Effects of Athletic Training on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Function.- 3.3. Risks of Athletic Amenorrhea.- 4. Exercise and Pregnancy.- 4.1. Limitation of Available Studies.- 4.2. Physiological Alterations of Normal Pregnancy.- 4.3. Effect of Pregnancy on Exercise Performance.- 4.4. Exercise Effects on the Fetus.- 4.5. Conclusions: Exercise and Pregnancy.- References.- 13. Human Growth Hormone.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion.- 3. Chemistry.- 4. Physiological and Metabolic Effects of Growth Hormone.- 5. Growth Hormone Receptor and Intracellular Changes.- 6. The Interaction of Growth Hormone and Somatomedins.- 7. Clinical Features of Abnormal Growth Hormone Production.- 8. Pathology of Growth Hormone Production.- 8.1. Growth Hormone Deficiency.- 8.2. Growth Hormone Hypersecretion.- 9. Assessment of Growth Hormone Production.- 10. Growth Hormone Therapy.- 11. Summary.- References.- 14. CNS Stimulants and Athletic Performance.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. General Pharmacology.- 1.2. Abuse, Tolerance, and Physical Dependence.- 2. The Magnitude of Drug Effects on Athletic Performance.- 3. Effects of Caffeine on Endurance and Physical Performance.- 3.1. Studies Showing Positive Effects with Caffeine.- 3.2. Studies Showing No Effect of Caffeine.- 3.3. Conclusions and Possible Mechanisms for the Effects of Caffeine on Endurance and Physical Performance.- 4. Effects of Amphetamines on Endurance and Physical Performance.- 4.1. Studies Showing Positive Effects with Amphetamines.- 4.2. Studies Showing No Effect of Amphetamines.- 4.3. Conclusions and Possible Mechanisms for the Effects of Amphetamines on Endurance and Physical Performance.- 5. Effects of Cocaine on Endurance and Physical Performance.- 6. Summary.- References.

ISBN: 9781468455014
ISBN-10: 146845501X
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 254
Published: 8th March 2012
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.78  x 1.37
Weight (kg): 0.45