The need for adequate means by which to improve urine output is very old. Even in the "Scuola Salernitana", the oldest medieval medical school in Western Europe, about 1000 years ago it was taught how to improve urine output. The list of known "diuretica" included herbs, plants, roots, vegetables, in particular asparagus, fennel and carrot. The first diuretic drugs, however, were mercurial compounds. Thus, calomel, mercurous chloride, was initially used as a diuretic in the sixteenth century by Paracelsus, being one of the ingredients of the so-called "Guy's Hospital pill". But calomel had a cathartic effect so that it was replaced by organic mercurial compounds. These diuretics were clearly toxic. After the discovery of the car- bonic anhydrase, in the early 1930s, and the introduction of sulfanilamide as a chemotherapeutic agent, it was observed that this drug was inhibiting carbonic anhydrase in vitro and urinary acidification in vivo thereby causing metabolic acidosis; urine output, however, appeared to increase. Subsequent studies led to the synthesis of more potent analogs, in particular acetazolamide. Studies on car- bonic anhydrase inhibitors led to the synthesis of benzothiadiazides which disclosed much less inactivating action on carbonic anhydrase and much more diuretic effect through an inhibition of tubular transport of sodium and chloride. Chlorothiazide was the first member of this class of diuretics. Thiazides are still used in clinical practice.
I. Historical Review..- Diuretics in the Salernitan medicine..- II. Effects of Diuretics on Ion Transport..- Ion transport and metabolism in renal cells..- Hydrogen secretion regulated by intracellular membrane potential: a hypothesis on the regulation of renal acidification..- Isolation and purification of the Amiloride-sensitive Na + channel from renal epithelia..- Blockers of active transport in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle..- The use of amiloride analogs to probe adaptations of the proximal tubular Na + /H + antiporter in response to a reduction in renal mass..- Red blood cell Na +-transport, Na-K-ATPase and phosphate ester metabolism in essential hypertension..- Correlation between blood pressure and K + fluxes in essential hypertensive patients treated for2 years with Cicletanine..- Effects of Muzolimine on cation transport ii human erythrocytes..- Effects of Xipamide on transmembranary potassium movements and prostacyclin production..- Lack of evidence for Na/K ATPase inhibition as a cause of low renin human hypertension..- Canrenone prevents Na,K pump inhibition induced by volume expansion in normal subjects..- Effect of Thiazides and Amiloride on the phosphorylation status of the red cell membrane anion carrier..- In vitro effects of d(+) and l(-)Ozolinone on sodium and potassium fluxes in human erythrocytes..- III. Effects of Diuretics on Tubular Transport..- The effects of diuretics on salt transport in renal diluting segments..- Estimation of free water back diffusion during water diuresis in man using Lithium clearance and furosemide effect: some unresolved questions..- Effect of Ouabain and Acetazolamide on proximal tubular transport in dogs..- Voltage-driven calcium reabsorption in diluting segment: inhibition by Furosemide but not by calcium antagonists..- Relationship between Na,K-ATPase activity and transcellular NaCl reabsorption in dog kidneys..- Dose dependence of inhibiton of proximal tubular sodium reabsorption by Furosemide in conscious rats..- Modification in renal handling of phosphate induced by Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and Amiloride (A)..- IV. Pharmacokinetics..- Influence of renal failure on the pharmacokinetics of Cicletanine..- Pharmacokinetics and -dynamics of Piretanide in chronic renal failure..- Changes in furosemide pharmacokinetics induced by dehydration..- Pharmacokinetics of Torasemide in man..- Furosemide blunts Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) effect..- Influence of renal insufficiency on the pharmacokinetics and the renal effects of Cicletanine..- A comparison between Torasemide and Furosemide effects after application upon one kidney or after I.V. injection in the rat..- V. Endogenous Natriuretic Factors..- Receptor binding sites of Atrial Natriuretic Factor in bovine brain microvessels..- Intrarenal localization and photoaffinity labeling of receptors for ?-rat Atrial Natriuretic Polypeptide..- Atrial Natriuretic Peptide raises hematocrit in conscious nephrectomized rats..- Tubular effects of atrial extract and of Atriopeptin III in conscious rats..- Atrial Natriuretic Peptides and renin secretion..- Salt loading in spontaneously hypertensive rats further elevates blood pressure despite enhanced release of Atrial Natriuretic Peptides and exaggerated natriuresis..- Plasma cardionatrin and volume and the renin angiotensin aldosterone system in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancy..- Atrial Natriuretic Peptide as an indicator of cardiac and volume state..- Atrial Natriuretic Peptides (ANP) in rats with chronic renal failure..- Plasma levels of human Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in chronic uremic patients..- Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) and renal function: effect of posture and dietary sodium..- Involvement of Na + transport and Natruiretic hormones in the antihypertensive mechanism of Canrenone..- Inhibition of the erythrocyte Na +, K + - Pump by mammalian lignans: a possible link with endogenous digitalis..- Effects of human alpha Natriuretic Atrial Peptide on aldosterone secretion in vitro..- Interaction of platelet-activating factor with natriuresis and diuresis induced by the synthetic Atrial Natriurectic Factor (ser 99-Tyr 126) in anaesthetized dog..- Circulating Natriuretic Factor in the pathogenesis of genetic hypertension of renal origin..- Lack of correlation between plasma Ouabain-like Factor and urinary sodium excretion in essential hypertensive patients..- Atrial Natriuretic Peptide during water immersion in healthy volunteers..- VI. Aquaretics..- Symposium on aquaretics: introduction..- Some aquaretic agents other than vasopressin analogs..- Vasopressin antagonists: model aquaretic agents..- The anti-antidiuretic effect of a stable prostaglandin-E2 analog in conscious sheep and man..- Vasopression in patients with liver and cardiac disease..- Reversal of hyponatremia in experimental Schwartz-Bartter Syndrome with a vasopressin antagonist (SK&F101926)..- The vasopressin antagonist SK&F101926 is a selective aquaretic agent in dogs..- VII. Diuretics and Hypertension..- The antihypertensive mechanism of diuretics..- Metabolic effects of long-term diuretic treatment..- Anthihypertensive diuretics - old and new..- The physiology of natriuretic mechanisms in the kidney..- Intracellular electrolytes in essential hypertension during treatment with Torasemide..- The isolated perfused rat kidney as a model for the study of diuretics in hypertension..- Antihypertensive mechanisms of Muzolimine..- Indapamide: antihypertensive activity and renal effects..- In vitro effects of Furosemide on rabbit blood vessels..- Comparison of Torasemide and Indapamide in the treatment of essential hypertension..- Modifications in cardiovascular Norepinephrine responsiveness by diuretic treatment in mild renal parenchymal disease..- Muzolimine vs Captopril in Low and Mild Hypertension..- The hypotensive action of Indapamide..- Etozolin induced urine excretion of water and solutes in patients with hypertension..- Calcium metabolism in essential hypertensive patients treated with Etozolin..- Improvement in exercise-induced diastolic blood pressure changes by diuretic treatment..- Antihypertensive activity and tolerability of Thiobutizide alone or in fixed combination with potassium Canreonate in essential hypertension..- K-rich/Na-poor salt reduces blood pressure in hospitalized patients..- Combination of Nifedipine and Chlorthalidone in the treatment of hypertension..- Cardiovascular reflex and systemic hemodynamic relationship in patients with essential hypertension under chronic treatment with Indapamide..- Comparison of long term metabolic effects of Muzolimine and Chlorthalidone in patients with arterial hypertension..- Etozolin in hypertension with renal failure..- Efficacy and tolerability of Muzolimine in the long-term treatment of essential hypertension..- Muzolimine in the treatment of arterial hypertension in the elderly..- Long-term therapy with Muzolimine in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension..- Hemodynamic changes in patients with essential hypertension after therapy with Muzolimine..- Relaxing action of Muzolimine on guinea-pig isolated aorta..- VIII. Diuretics and Cardiac Disease.- The cardiovascular effects of diuretics..- Aspects of the mechanism of action of diuretics in heart failure..- Treatment of chronic nonhydropic congestive heart failure: effect of Hydrochlorothiazide and Triamteren on cardiac performance..- Comparison of the efficacy and safety of 5mg/10mg Torasemide (TO) in patients with chronic heart failure..- Influence on water and solutes excretion determined by different adminstrations of Muzolimine and Furosemide in patients with congestive heart failure..- Evidence of improvement in myocardial contractility after acute oral Muzolimine administration..- Intraindividual comparison of effects of Piretanide, Bumetanide and Furosemide in congestive heart failure..- IX. Diuretics and Renal Disease..- Prevention of acute renal failure (ARF) by diuretics and hydration..- Comparison of dose-related efficacy of Torasemide and Furosemide in patients with advanced renal failure..- Pharmacodynamics and kinetics of Torasemide and its metabolites in chronic renal failure after i.v. Administration of 20mg Torasemide..- Muzolimine in the treatment of acute tubular necrosis following renal transplantation..- Torasemide in chronic renal failure..- Muzolimine vs Furosemide in chronic renal failure: short term effect in double-blind study..- Effects of Etozolin in uremic patients on dialysis with residual renal function..- Can high-dose diuretic therapy reduce the frequency of hemodialytic treatment?.- Use of high dose Muzolimine in acute fluid retention in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)..- Double blind cross-over comparison of Muzolimine and placebo in patients on maintenance hemodialysis..- Effects of the loop-diuretic Muzolimine in rats with HgCl2 -induced acute renal failure (ARF)..- Effects of Muzolimine on experimental acute renal failure (ARF)..- Enhanced recovery of acute renal failure with Dopamine + Muzolimine..- The use of Muzolimine in nephrotic syndrome: diuretic effect and tubular functions..- Favourable effects of Muzolimine on urea plasma levels in chronic renal failure..- Furosemide as an agent enhancing peritoneal dialysis efficiency..- Furosemide and peritoneal transport of uric acid - experimental studies..- X. Diuretics in Cirrhosis..- Comparison of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of Torasemide and Furosemide in patients with ascites due to cirrhosis of the liver..- Comparative evaluation of Muzolimine and Furosemide in healthy subjects and in liver cirrhosis..- Restoration of response to diuretics with plasma expanders and Aminophylline in ascitic cirrhosis of liver..- Behavior of red blood cell potassium and of other hydro-electrolyte parameters during spironolactone treatment in patients with non compensated liver cirrhosis..- Muzolimine as treatment of ascites from hepatic cirrhosis..- XI. Diuretics and Stone Formation..- Extrarenal effects of Hydrochlorothiazide in hypercalciuric stone formers..- Causes of failure in Thiazide diuretic therapy of hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis..- Comparison of two different associations of diuretics in reducing hypercalciuria in recurrent calcium stone formers..- Medical treatment of idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis: Thiazide (T) vs stone clinic effect..- Effect of Thiazide diuretics on hypercalciuria induced by active vitamin D metabolites..- XII. Side Effects of Diuretic Therapy..- Captopril protects against metabolic effects of chronic Hydrochlorothiazide therapy..- Gynecomastia and mastodynia after spironolactone and potassium canrenoate..- Side effects from diuretics in hospitalized patients..- Diuretic-associated hypokalemia: a prevalent and expensive disease?.- Effects of Muzolimine on free-water excretion in edematous and hyponatremic patients..- Irreversible hyponatremia due to incongruous spironolactone treatment..- The diuretic effects of lithium salts. Absence of side effects..- Renal failure due to diuretics..- The effects of Spironolactone and Amiloride on plasma electrolytes in Thiazide treated subjects..- Hemorheological effects of diuretics..- Diuretic effect and electrolyte changes caused by oral PEG 200 in rat..- XIII. Effects of Diuretics on Water and Electrolyte Excretion..- Changes in kinetics of electrolyte excretions induced by adding Triamterene to Thiazide..- Beneficial effects of Ibopamine in idiopathic edema..- Kaliuresis induced by various diuretics..- Natriuretic potency of various diuretics..- Short term effects of Muzolimine on electrolytes and acid-base balance..- Effects of Torasemide's metabolites on water and electrolyte excretion in the rat..- Role of central gabaergic system on rat diuresis..- XIV. Diuretics in Renal Investigation..- Use of diuretics to investigate renal function..- The significance of the Macula Densa mechanism for renin release..- Furosemide i.v. test to check distal acidification. Normal values in adults..- Tubular function in Bartter's syndrome and changes induced by chronic converting enzyme blockade..- Type II pseudohypoaldosteronism. Differential effects of loop diuretics and Hydrochlorothiazide..- Clinical evaluation of proximal tubule Na/fluid reabsorption: lithium clearance vs "volume or chloride factors" during maximal water diuresis and Furosemide administration..- Henle's loop (HL) reabsorption measured by Furosemide (F)..- XV. Effects of Diuretics on Renal Function..- Effects of the new uricosuric diuretic Bay r 4420 on rat kidney function..- Characterization of the renal and hormonal effects of three novel antimineralocorticoids in vitro and in vivo..- Renal effects of Etozolin in Man..- Effects of Enalapril on water and salt balance and renal hemodynamics..- XVI. Diuretics and Prostaglandins..- Effect of Indomethacin on the saluretic activity of Bumetanide..- Role of renal prostaglandins in mediating the activity of Muzolimine in man..- Cicletanine -an antihypertensive drug with a powerful natriuretic effect; role of renal prostaglandins..- Effects of Muzolimine on renal prostaglandin biosynthesis in healthy subjects..- Effect of Muzolimine on Prostaglandin E2 synthesis and catabolism in rat kidney..
Series: Documenta Ophthalmologica
Number Of Pages: 576
Published: 31st May 1987
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 24.13 x 16.41
Weight (kg): 1.09