History The present book is a translation and in part an adaptation of a study the authors conducted for the Dutch Ministry of Education. Several years ago, the Dutch authorities decided to found an Open University, a system of distance learning especially suited to students only able or willing to devote part of their time to their studies, and, moreover, not generally capable of studying at fixed times or places. A preparatory committee was created, which published a preliminary report in 1 1978. This report was largely concerned with the kinds of courses the Open University should offer and the kinds of students it planned to enroll. The report also discussed possible teaching methods or media of the Open University. The predominant conclusion was that written instruction should constitute the basic teaching medium, and that other media (e. g. , computerized instruction or televi- sion) were only to be added if the written medium failed to realize the desired teaching objectives. This preference was mainly based on considerations of cost, since the committee expected written instruction to be the cheapest alternative possible.
Whether this is in fact true will be discussed later in this book. We were then asked to reconsider the different possibilities of teaching methods and media in more detail, in terms of their differential teaching effects, costs of application, and the committee's preference for the print medium. Work was started on this assignment in 1978 and completed a year later.
1 Introduction.- History.- Methods.- Structure.- 2 A Didactic Model.- Knowledge versus Skills.- A Classification of Educational Objectives.- 3 An Analysis of Teaching Methods in Higher Education.- Teaching Method and Teaching Medium.- Didactically Treated and Original Learning Material.- Conclusion-Oriented and Paradigmatic Instruction.- Knowledge Gaps and Misrepresentations of Knowledge.- Lectures.- Self-Study.- Discussion Groups.- Practicals.- Conclusion.- 4 The Scope and Limitations of Written Instruction.- Direct or Vicarious Experience.- Disadvantages of Written Instruction.- Properties of Written Instruction of a Combined Positive and Negative Character.- Advantages of Written Instruction.- Differences between Texts.- The Combination of Text and Image.- Activating the Reader.- The Literacy of the Student.- Recapitulation: The Limitations of Written Instruction.- 5 The Scope and Limitations of Audiovisual Teaching Media.- A Simple Division.- Auditory Registration.- Visual Registration.- Some Special Applications of Audiovisual Media.- Conclusion.- 6 The Scope and Limitations of Computerized Instruction.- Computers in Education.- The Technology of Computers: First Round.- Computer-Assisted Instruction: Didactic Possibilities.- The Technology of Computers: Software.- Testing by Means of a Computer.- Instructional Remediation by Means of a Computer.- Conclusion.- 7 Learning and The Choice of Instructional Medium.- The Problem.- Solutions of the Open University.- Solutions for an Open University.- Distance Learning Possibilities for Traditional Institutions.- 8 The Cost of Distance Learning.- The Economic Perspective.- Which Costs Will Be Examined?.- Determining the Costs of Instruction: Method and Assumptions.- The Costs of Written Materials.- The Costs of Auditory Registrations.- The Costs of Visual Registration.- The Costs of Computer-Assisted Instruction.- The Costs of Face-to-Face Teaching.- The Costs of Testing and Feedback.- Index of Names.- Index of Subjects.
Series: On the Design of an Open University
Number Of Pages: 196
Published: 30th November 1982
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 16.51
Weight (kg): 0.41