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Directed Sonar Sensing for Mobile Robot Navigation : The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science - John J. Leonard

Directed Sonar Sensing for Mobile Robot Navigation

The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science

Hardcover Published: 31st May 1992
ISBN: 9780792392422
Number Of Pages: 183

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This monograph is a revised version of the D.Phil. thesis of the first author, submitted in October 1990 to the University of Oxford. This work investigates the problem of mobile robot navigation using sonar. We view model-based navigation as a process of tracking naturally occurring environment features, which we refer to as "targets". Targets that have been predicted from the environment map are tracked to provide that are observed, but not predicted, vehicle position estimates. Targets represent unknown environment features or obstacles, and cause new tracks to be initiated, classified, and ultimately integrated into the map. Chapter 1 presents a brief definition of the problem and a discussion of the basic research issues involved. No attempt is made to survey ex­ haustively the mobile robot navigation literature-the reader is strongly encouraged to consult other sources. The recent collection edited by Cox and Wilfong [34] is an excellent starting point, as it contains many of the standard works of the field. Also, we assume familiarity with the Kalman filter. There are many well-known texts on the subject; our notation derives from Bar-Shalom and Fortmann [7]. Chapter 2 provides a detailed sonar sensor model. A good sensor model of our approach to navigation, and is used both for is a crucial component predicting expected observations and classifying unexpected observations.

The Navigation Problemp. 1
Why Use Sonar?p. 3
Choosing a Representationp. 3
The Kalman Filterp. 5
Data Associationp. 10
Overviewp. 11
A Sonar Sensor Model
Introductionp. 13
Previous Workp. 14
Terminologyp. 17
The Physics of Sonarp. 17
Predicting Sonar Datap. 19
Theory vs Practicep. 24
Regions of Constant Depthp. 39
Sparse vs Densely Sampled Datap. 43
Discussionp. 44
Summaryp. 49
Model-based Localization
Introductionp. 51
Problem Statementp. 55
The Basic Localization Cyclep. 59
Algorithm Summaryp. 64
Off-line Processing of Densely Sampled Datap. 65
Sparse Data Error Modelp. 73
Tracking Planar Targetsp. 74
Tracking Planes, Corners, and Cylindersp. 75
Hands-off Localization Resultsp. 85
Discussionp. 93
Alternative Approachesp. 93
Summaryp. 94
Map Building
Introductionp. 97
Specular Event Interpretationp. 98
Rules for RCD-based Sonar Interpretationp. 99
Map Building via Track Initiationp. 101
Experimental Resultsp. 111
Multiple Hypothesis Track Initiationp. 121
Alternative Approachesp. 124
Why Build Accurate Maps?p. 127
Simultaneous Map Building and Localization
A Unified Approach to Navigationp. 129
Research Issuesp. 132
Restatement of the problemp. 133
A Strategy for Decoupling [Lambda](k k)p. 136
Initialization With Sonarp. 137
Dynamic Map Building and Maintenancep. 137
Summaryp. 138
Directed Sensing Strategies
The Time Problemp. 147
Tracking Sonarsp. 148
Orienteeringp. 150
Related Research: Sensor Controlp. 154
Summaryp. 155
Why Use Sonar?
Sonar vs the Infrared Rangefinderp. 157
Sonar vs Visionp. 159
Sensor Fusionp. 159
Future Researchp. 160
Contributionsp. 162
A Hardware and Software
Mobile Robotsp. 163
The Polaroid Ultrasonic Ranging Systemp. 164
Softwarep. 168
Bibliographyp. 169
Indexp. 181
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792392422
ISBN-10: 0792392426
Series: The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 183
Published: 31st May 1992
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 1.05