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Direct Conversion Receivers in Wide-Band Systems : The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science - Aarno Parssinen

Direct Conversion Receivers in Wide-Band Systems

The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science

Hardcover

Published: 31st December 2001
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Wide-band systems will be the next significant generation in wireless communications. Those include both wireless local area networks and cellular systems with a large coverage area. They will provide a higher data rate and access to internet and video services, for example. Although most of the data processing is performed digitally, also the requirements and possibilities to implement the analog part of the radio receiver will be different compared to the second-generation narrow-band receivers. Direct conversion architecture is a distinct candidate for wide-band systems because some non-idealities involved in baseband signal processing are significantly relaxed. The requirements and feasibility of direct conversion in wide-band systems are analyzed in this work. The main emphasis is on cellular systems based on direct sequence code division multiple access, but the same principles are generally valid in all receivers for different applications. The basic principles and design methods involved in receiver design are overviewed as well as the most common radio architectures. In a detailed analysis, the fundamental limitations of the direct conversion architecture are analyzed in wide-band signal processing. Especially, the effect of envelope distortion is characterized both with respect to the specific modulation and to the implementation of a downconversion mixer. Downconversion mixer is the key component in direct conversion because it transfers the radio frequency signal immediately down into the baseband after a relatively small gain at the preceding signal processing blocks, which do not provide filtering of the unwanted radio channels within the system band. Both switching mixers and subsampling mixers are analyzed. Direct Conversion Receivers in Wide-Band Systems consists of four different circuit implementations. A subharmonic sampler operating up to 2 GHz is implemented with a GaAs MESFET technology. The second IC is a CMOS low-noise amplifier with an optimized interface to a subsampling mixer. Two BiCMOS implementations of the wide-band direct conversion receiver are given. The first consists of four different chips: RF front-end, analog baseband circuitry and two analog-to-digital converters. In the second chip, all blocks from the low-noise amplifier to the A/D converters are placed on the same die. In that case, an excellent isolation is required between rail-to-rail clock signals and the sensitive RF input.

Prefacep. i
Contentsp. iii
Symbols and Abbreviationsp. v
Symbolsp. v
Abbreviationsp. xii
Introductionp. 1
System Requirements for Radio Receivers in Wireless Communicationsp. 3
Mobile Communicationsp. 3
Wireless Systemsp. 6
Multiple Access Methods and Duplexingp. 8
Frequency Division Multiple Accessp. 9
Time Division Multiple Accessp. 9
Code Division Multiple Accessp. 9
Duplexingp. 12
Digital Modulationp. 12
Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)p. 14
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)p. 15
Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)p. 17
Gaussian-Filtered Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK)p. 18
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)p. 18
DS-CDMA QPSK Transmitterp. 19
Design Parameters for Radio Receiversp. 19
Sensitivityp. 20
Intersymbol Interferencep. 25
Selectivityp. 28
Dynamic Rangep. 41
Gain and Interface to Digital Signal Processingp. 46
Image Rejection Ratiop. 51
Quadrature Demodulationp. 56
Special Topics in CDMA Communicationsp. 59
Referencesp. 73
Receiver Architecturesp. 76
Superheterodynep. 77
Direct Conversionp. 80
Low-IFp. 86
Wide-Band IFp. 90
Direct Digital And Digital IFp. 92
Comparison of Architecturesp. 97
Referencesp. 98
Direct Conversion Receiversp. 104
Direct Conversion in Wide-Band Systemsp. 104
DC Offsets and Flicker Noisep. 104
Envelope Distortionp. 109
Radio Designp. 115
Functional Blocks in Direct Conversion Receiversp. 116
Low-Noise Amplifiersp. 116
Mixersp. 121
LO Generation and I/Q Balancep. 123
Filteringp. 129
A/D Convertersp. 131
Decouplingp. 135
Active Mixers in Direct Conversionp. 137
Active Mixer Topologiesp. 137
Interfaces to LNA and Basebandp. 141
Theoretical Characterization of IIP2 in Transconductance Mixersp. 142
Switching Corep. 155
BiCMOS Transconductance Mixerp. 164
Downconversion by Subsamplingp. 165
Single-Chip Radio Receiversp. 169
Frequency Planning in Mixed-Mode Implementationsp. 170
IC Implementationsp. 176
Referencesp. 178
Circuit Implementationsp. 197
Subsampling Mixerp. 197
Circuit Descriptionp. 197
Measurement Setupp. 201
Experimental Resultsp. 202
Summary of the Subsampling Mixerp. 205
Low-Noise Amplifier and Interface to a Subsampling RF Front-Endp. 205
Low-Noise Amplifierp. 206
Resonator Load with On-Chip Coupling Capacitorsp. 207
Current Biasing Circuit for the LNAp. 209
Implementationp. 209
Summary of the LNA and Interface to Subsampling Mixerp. 211
Chipset for Direct Conversion WCDMA Receiverp. 211
Building Blocks of the Direct Conversion Receiverp. 212
Layoutp. 217
Experimental Resultsp. 218
Summary of the WCDMA Chip Setp. 222
Single-Chip Direct Conversion Receiver for WCDMAp. 223
Circuit Designp. 223
Experimental Resultsp. 224
Summary of the Single-Chip Direct Conversion Receiverp. 226
Referencesp. 227
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792376071
ISBN-10: 0792376072
Series: The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 230
Published: 31st December 2001
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 1.19