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Dimethylsulphide: Oceans, Atmosphere and Climate : Proceedings of the International Symposium held in Belgirate, Italy, 13-15 October 1992 - G. Restelli

Dimethylsulphide: Oceans, Atmosphere and Climate

Proceedings of the International Symposium held in Belgirate, Italy, 13-15 October 1992

By: G. Restelli (Editor), G. Angeletti (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 30th September 1993
ISBN: 9780792324904
Number Of Pages: 400

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Dimethylsulphide (DMS), emitted by marine phytoplankton, is the second most important source of atmospheric sulphur, after anthropogenic SO2. In the atmosphere, DMS is transformed into condensable acidic sulphur products and, through gas-to-particle conversion, it becomes the most important natural source of atmospheric sulphate aerosols. Possible climatic effects have been suggested, linked to the negative radiative forcing due to scattering of solar radiation and especially to modification of cloud albedo over oceans by sulphate aerosol particles. These effects occur in addition to those deriving from the superimposed anthropogenic component of the atmospheric sulphate. Understanding the cycle of DMS in the marine troposphere and its interaction with the aerosol budget and cloud properties has become a key research target in these last years. Our knowledge of the many processes involved is still fragmentary, however. This book, which updates the state of our comprehension of the marine DMS cycle with special regard to its climatic impact, will be of interest to marine biologists, atmospheric chemists, aerosol physicists and climatologists, and to scientists concerned with changes in the Earth's climate.

Preface
Production of DMS by Marine Phytoplanktonp. 1
Assessment of the Role of Zooplankton in the Cycling of DMSP and DMS in the Water Column During Eumeli-4 (France - JGOFS)p. 15
The Cycling of Sulfur in Surface Seawater During PSI-3p. 21
Ecophysiology of Ice Algae (Antarctica): Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Content and Release of Dimethylsulfide During Ice Meltp. 23
Isolation of Marine Dimethylsulfide-Oxidizing Bacteriap. 37
Aspects of the Biogeochemistry of Dimethylsulfide (DMS) and Dimethylsulfopropionate (DMSP) at an Antarctic Coastal Sitep. 43
The Production of DMS by a Plankton Community: A Mesocosm Experimentp. 53
A Model of Dimethylsulphide Production During a Phytoplankton Bloomp. 63
Dimethylsulfide Field Measurementsp. 83
Dimethylsulfide and Aerosol Measurements at Ross Island, Antarcticap. 85
Measurements of Atmospheric and Seawater DMS Concentrations in the Atlantic, the Arctic and Antarctic Regionp. 95
Biogenic Sulphur in the Marine Boundary Layer of the Arctic the International Arctic Ocean Expedition, 1991p. 103
Measurement of Dimethylsulfide, Sulfur Dioxide, Methanesulfonic Acid and Non Sea Salt Sulfate at Cape Grim Baseline Stationp. 117
Caracterization of Parameters Controlling Atmospheric Concentrations of Biogenic Dimethylsulphide Near a Coastal Algae Fieldp. 129
Dimethylsulphide Measurements at Baring Head, New Zealandp. 143
The Role of Methanesulphonic Acid in Snow Samples from Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica)p. 153
Preliminary Data on DMS Concentration in Seawater Samples Collected from the La Spezia Gulf (Ligurian Sea)p. 163
Dimethylsulphide and Other Volatile Organic Sulphur Compounds in Some Neglected Ecosystems: A Study in Evaporitic Environments and in Sulphate-Rich Karstic Lakesp. 173
Stable Sulfur Isotope Ratios: Source Indicatorsp. 183
The Atmospheric Oxidation of Dimethylsulfide: Elementary Steps in a Complex Mechanismp. 185
FT-IR Product Study of the Photolysis of CH[subscript 3]SSCH[subscript 3]: Reactions of the CH[subscript 3]S Radicalp. 197
Mechanistic Studies of the OH-Initiated Oxidation of Dimethylsulfidep. 211
Overview and Atmospheric Significance of the Results from Laboratory Kinetic Studies Performed within the CEC Project "Oceano-No[subscript X]"p. 223
Field Studies of Atmospheric DMS Chemistry Using Selected Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometryp. 239
Kinetic and Mechanistic Study of the Reaction of Atomic Chlorine with Dimethylsulfidep. 243
Production of Peroxy-Radicals in the DMS Oxidation During Night-Timep. 251
Laboratory and Modelling Studies of the Formation of a Stable Intermediate in the Night-Time Oxidation of DMSp. 261
Do Dimethylsulphide Emissions from the North Atlantic Contribute to Rainwater Acidity and the Atmospheric Sulphur Burden in the UK?p. 273
Gas-to-Particle Conversion and CCN Productionp. 275
Pacific Marine Aerosol:Equatorial Gradients in Sulfate, Ammonium and Chlorophyllp. 287
Formation and Distribution of Cloud Condensation Nuclei in the Marine Environmentp. 297
Are Dimethylsulfide and Condensation Nuclei Connected Over the Tropical Northeastern Atlantic Ocean?p. 303
Cloud Condensation Nuclei from Dimethylsulphide in the Natural Marine Boundary Layer: Remote vs. In-Situ Productionp. 311
Equatorial Convection as a Source of Tropospheric Nuclei Over the Remote Pacificp. 323
Relationship Between DMS-Derived Particulate Mass, Particle Surface Area, and CN and CCN Number Concentrationsp. 331
Atmospheric Concentration of DMS and Its Oxidation Products Estimated in a Global 3-D Modelp. 333
Recent Field Studies of Sulfur Gases; Particles and Clouds in Clean Marine Air and Their Significance with Respect to the DMS-Cloud-Climate Hypothesisp. 345
Modelling of the Sulphur Cycle. From DMS to Cloud Particlesp. 355
Model Study of the Ratio Between Methanesulphonic Acid (MSA) and Non Sea Salt-Sulphate in Coastal Airp. 375
A Physical Receptor Model Applied to Aerosol Data from Northeastern Greenlandp. 385
Recognition and Inventory of Oceanic Clouds from Satellite Data Using an Artificial Neural Network Techniquep. 393
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792324904
ISBN-10: 0792324900
Series: Air Poll
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 400
Published: 30th September 1993
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.15  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.91